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60 Cards in this Set

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acculturation model

·Acculturation is the process of becoming adapted to a new culture, (which is needed for L2 success.)
·This model was designed to predict situations that best lead to SLA success.
·Second lg learning group adapts to the life style & values of the TL group, but at the same time maintains its own cultural patterns for use in intragroup relations.
·It was one of the first attempts to explain the culture beyond the individual.
·It was the first to predict success w/ social structure. It’s not used very much anymore.
social distance
the relationship between the L1 group & the L2 group; pertains to the individual as a member of a social group which is in contact w/ another social group whose members speak a different lg. Includes such sociological factors as domination vs. subordination, assimilation vs. acculturation.
psychological distance
the individual’s personal relationship to the L2 culture and lg., pertains to the individual and involves such psychological factors as resolution of lg shock, culture shock, culture stress, integrative vs. instrumental motivation, and ego-permeability.
the process of learning a new culture
Second lg. learning group rejects the lifestyle & values of the TL group and attempts to maintain its own cultural identity as much as possible
the degree to which the two groups have separate schools, churches, clubs, recreational facilities, professions, crafts, trades, etc.
the degree to which members of the second lg learning group live, work, and socialize together.
the degree to which the cultures of the two groups are similar
A pidgin lg is a simplified & reduced form of speech used for communication between people w/ different lgs. These lgs. are generally restricted to the first function--communication. That is, their purpose is merely to convey denotative, referential info.
simplified English
A pidgin is a simplified form of English, which is characterized by a lack of inflectional morphology and grammatical transformations. For example, Schumann observed that Alberto’s used “no” for most negative utterances, he did not invert in questions, he lacked auxiliaries, and he deleted subject pronouns.
learning/acquisition (Terrell)
Acquisition (product): the ability to comprehend and produce novel utterances. Acquisition (process): the development of binding/access and their associated strategies. (The association of meaning and form for comprehension and speech.)

Learning (product): conscious knowledge about the target language.
Learning (process): study, practice, drill, exercises with the focus on correct form.
EGI (Terrell)
Explicit grammar instruction. It means the use of instructional strategies to draw the student's attention to focus on form and/or structure.
Terrell's hypothesis
In summary, research to date has not found EGI to be the most important factor in SLA. Rather, it is more probable that instruction about forms or structures of the target language is beneficial to learners at a particular point in their acquisition of the target language.
binding (Terrell)
The psycholinguistic linking of meaning to a new form in the target language, where form can be a monomorphemic word (e.g., tree), a polymorphemic word (e.g., running), or a grammatical marker (e.g., will). Binding is the process by which we link meaning and form. The result of binding is a subconscious reaction to forms in the target language.
pushed output
Pushed output is teacher-led output. For example, if the teacher tries to make students practice present-progressive form but students do not produce the form, the teacher will ask questions like “What are you doing now?” and the proper answer from the students will be “I am studying with you”
Uptake is not the same as acquisition. The fact that a learner responds to a focus on form by producing the form correctly does not mean that the learner has acquired the form. However, it does indicate that the form has been noticed. Furthermore, pushing learners to produce language has been hypothesized to aid acquisition
pre-emptive focus on form
Preemptive focus on form involves the teacher or learner initiating attention to form even though no actual problem in production has arisen. It addresses an actual or a perceived gap in the students’ knowledge.
reactive focus on form
Reactive focus on form arises when learners produce an utterance containing an actual or perceived error, which is then addressed usually by the teacher but sometimes by another learner. Thus, it supplies learners with negative evidence.
focus on formS
Long concludes that there is nothing gained by attempting to systematically teach isolated linguistic forms in accordance with a structural syllabus – an approach he characterizes as focus on forms.
meaning focused approaches
Meaning-focused approach (instruction) is evident in the strong version of communicative language teaching, which is predicated on the assumption that linguistic knowledge is acquired through communication rather than through direct instruction.
form focused approaches
Form-focused instruction (approach), in contrast, involves attempts to intervene directly in the process of interlanguage construction by drawing learners’ attention to or providing opportunities for them to practice specific linguistic features.
noticing hypothesis
formulated by Schmidt, who argued that conscious attention is needed for acquisition to take place (vs Krashen). Thus, form-focussed instruction that has Ss pay conscious attention to forms in the input (especially those they might otherwise ignore, e.g., third person -s) can assist interlanguage development.
teachability hypothesis
associated with Pienemann, who maintained that Ts must be familiar with
1) the order and sequence of acquisition that learners generally manifest and
2) the developmental stage that individual learners have reached.
This is the only way that Ts can be sure that a learner is ready to acquire the targeted linguistic features.
negotiation of meaning
entirely communicative in meaning, as it’s directed at enabling participants to understand each other in order to communicate
negotiation of form
directed at improving accuracy and precision when no problem of understanding has arisen
formal research
Formal research involves careful control of the factors which may affect learning. It often uses large numbers of teachers and learners in order to try to limit the possibility that the unusual behavior of one or two individuals might create a misleading impression about what one would expect in general. Researchers doing this kind of work must sometimes sacrifice naturalness in order to ensure that only those factors under investigating are different in the groups being compared
informal research
Informal research often involves small numbers, perhaps only one class with one teacher, and the emphasis is not on what is most general but rather on what is particular about this group or this teacher. While formal research may add strength to theoretical proposals, informal research, including that carried out by teachers in their own classrooms, is also essential
communication between two learners.

Be aware that interaction and negotiation are not the same thing.
a variety of interaction that
takes place between learners and interlocutors during the course of interaction, in which either one signals with questions or comments that the other’s preceding message has not been successfully conveyed. The other then responds, often by repeating or modifying the message.

Learners modify their interaction through negotiation in 3 ways:
1) Modified output
2) Modified input
3) Feedback
form-focused instruction
Instruction which draws attention to the forms and structures of the language within the context of communicative interaction. This may be done by giving metalinguistic information, simply highlighting the form in question, or by providing corrective feedback.
consciousness raising
Rutherford’s term for the drawing of the learner's attention to grammatical forms or other features of the target language
modified input
incoming information modified, or adapted, for comprehensibility in interaction or conversation by interlocutor

NS: Okay, with a big chimney.
NNS: What is chimney?(=signal)
NS: Chimney is where the smoke comes out of(=response, modified input)
modified output
producing language in a modified way so that the interlocutors can comprehend

NNS: Around the house, we have glass.
NS: You have what? (=signal)
NNS: Uh, grass, plants and grass (=response, modified output)
deviant input
Non-standard, non-perfect input. Morphosyntactically incorrect input of NNSs.
A form of modification in which a speaker repeats an isolated word or phrase from a prior utterance.
NNS: She cooking and now says good-bye from the door.
NS: The door? (=signal)
NNS: the door. (=response, segmentation)

Learners’ predominant type of modification is segmentation.
An emotional state of apprehension, a vague fear that is only indirectly associated with an object
correlation studies
Comparing results from two or more research studies to analyze factors that seem to co-occurr.

The idea is that higher correlation between two factors leads to greater significance. But is not generalizable.
debilitating anxiety
It motivates the learner to withdraw from the new learning task; he sees himself as inadequate and unable to face the challenge
facilitating anxiety
It motivates the learner to accept the challenge of a new learning task – an increased effort to learn the language; it can lead to competitiveness.
Desire to excel in comparison to others (other classmates, an idealized self-image, or other learners not directly involved in the classroom --- friends, relatives.
diaries as research tools
Systematic chronological records used in ethnographic, qualitative research in order to record personal responses to language learning situations. They are systematic and rigorous (10yrs), not generalizable (unique history or the writer)
Intensity of one’s drive to learn a language
investment (peirce and angelil-carter)
Investment: (Peirce) Investment explains “the complex relationship between relations of power, identity, and language learning.” When learners invest in a second language, they do so with the understand that they will acquire a wider range of symbolic of material resources which in turn will increase their cultural capital. Investment is also seen as an investment in the learner’s identity and sense of self, which is a locus of struggle and conflict changing across space and time.

(Angelil-Carter) Her concept of investment had to do with learners investing time in learning different types of literacies, forms of writing or speaking. A student is learning new types of discourse whether in the area of speaking or writing.
social identity
Pierce: identity is dynamic, a site of struggle, changing over time. Language learner’s identity is constantly changing across time and space. It is always being reshaped by the changing social world. (e.g. Eva’s social identity, from immigrant worker to multicultural citizen that has the right to speak and be heard; Martina’s changing identity to resist the power—a site of struggle.)
cultural capital
Learners hope to have a good return on the investment they make in learning a second language, by which they will acquire symbolic and material resources and thus increase the value of their cultural capital
communicative competence (Hymes)
ability to use language in a variety of settings, taking into account relationships b/w speakers and differences in situations. To use language appropriately. Knowing the rules of the use of the target language.
communicative competence (Peirce)
To claim the “right to speak”! More than just “knowing the rules.” Extend appropriate use of rules to understand the way rules are socially constructed to support the interest of a dominant group. Competence should include an awareness of the right to speak, “the power to impose reception.”
CBSR (Peirce)
Classroom Based Social Research-collaborative research that is carried out by language learners in their local communities with the active guidance and support of the language teacher
A term from Freire, employed by Zou, to describe the condition in which immigrants (language learners), give up hope to become part of the society, due principally to the relations of power and language proficiency, and find themselves on the fringes of society
zone of proximal development
“The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under the guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.”
pedagogy of hope (freire, in zou)
Crucial elements for a Pedagogy of Hope for immigrants (Zou, p. 8):
-Basic proficiency skills in reading, writing, and math in a meaningful and authentic way
-Cognitive and analytical skills to process info, interpret text, problem solve, evaluate, judge, etc.
-Communicative skills in English through oral and written discourse
-Organizational skills to handle multiple tasks according to a plan
-Determination and motivation to pursue difficult cognitive tasks
-Emotional balance to handle daily stress and function effectively
-Personal qualities & skills to become a good peer & colleague & work in collaboration w/others
-Vision to plan & define long-term goals & the functional relationship b/w present-day tasks & those goals

“Children’s acquisition of a new knowledge in the host country must be informed by a pedagogy of hope that is clearly based on solid psychological principles and learning development among young children, and on the social, cultural psychological, and cognitive adaptation of adults”
caring guide
Vygotskian term describing a caring guide as one more knowledgeable than the child/learner, who is able to lead them from actual development to potential development.
speech acts
(Holmes) Words performing acts-apology, insults. They’re units of analyses, if systematically observed “can yield important cultural info.
face supportive acts
(Holmes) {Face- social equilibrium} They’re speech acts that seek to maintain harmony by paying attention to face needs of the interlocutor--apologies, compliments.
face threatening acts
Speech acts that threatened to take away social equilibrium and contribute to negative face
gender difference in language
-Holmes- study w/ apologies- differences between men & women. Shows that “pragmatic and sociolinguistic behavior of men and women is an important aspect of communicative competence
"teaching" of gender differences
Empower learners by providing info about how NSs “use and interpret speech." Informing learners about gender differences in speech patterns so they can recognize behavior in the TL community.
psychological processes and SLA
-Angelil-Carter- SLA has been concerned w/Processes & SLA such as affective variables, effect of L1 on L2.

However, SLA must consider the “social context, power relations w/in a context and how they affect psychological variables and language learning processes."
the skeptron
>Literal-Staff an orator would use.
>Metaphorical- power (right to speak) and the recognition of being a legitimate speaker.
legitimate language
“Authority comes to language from the outside”
“A communicative event only takes place when speaker is recognized as a legitimate speaker”(267) Must be in a legitimate situation, spoken to legitimate receivers and according legitimate syntactic & phonetic forms.