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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
structural syllabus
It consists of a list of grammatical inflections and constructions that the teacher is expected to teach and learner is expected to master. Since the structural syllabus focuses on grammatical forms, the teachers and textbook writers have organized their language course and materials around grammar points. The grammar-translation, direct, audio-lingual, cognitive, and even some methods following comprehension approach have all employed a structural syllabus.
text-based syllabus
The reading approach is text-based. It is organized around texts and vocabulary items with only minor consideration given to grammar.
functional-notional syllabus
It is organized around notions (such as duration, quantity, location, time) and functions (social transactions and interactions such as asking for information, introducing someone, greeting people). In this syllabus, grammar and vocabulary are secondary; they help express the notions and functions that are in focus.
communicative competence
It is the ability to interact with other speakers to make meaning, as distinct from their ability to recite dialogs or perform on discrete-point tests of grammatical knowledge. It consists of 4 components—grammatical, discourse, sociocultural, and strategic competences, which are interrelated and interacting with one another (canale & swain).
grammatical competence
The ability to recognize the lexical, morphological, syntactic, and phonological feature of a language and to use these rules for interpretation, expression, or negotiation of meaning when coping with words and sentences.
discourse competence
The ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances, written words, and/or phrases. Discourse means everything from simple spoken conversation to lengthy written texts (articles, books, and the like). While grammatical competence focuses on sentence-level grammar, discourse competence is concerned with intersentential relationships.
sociocultural competence
An understanding of the social context in which language is used: the roles of the participants, the information they share, and the function of the interaction. It also includes cultural awareness and a willingness to take into consideration the possibility of cultural differences in social conventions or use.
strategic competence
The ability to employ various verbal and non-verbal communication strategies, which may be called into action whether to enhance the effectiveness of communication or to compensate for breakdowns, to internalize and to perform in the language.
compensatory v. noncompensatory view of strategic competence
Compensatory view perceives that one uses strategies to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or due to insufficient competence (such as fatigue, distraction, and inattention). Noncompensatory view focuses on the fact that one uses strategies to enhance the effectiveness of communication. It refers to an ability to select an effective means of performing a communicative act that enables the listener/reader to identify the intended referent.
bottom-up processing
Bottom-up processing is taking all the perceived data and the reader/listener selects the signals that make some sense. In bottom-up processing, reader/listener must first recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signals (letters, morphemes, syllables, words, phrases, grammatical cues, discourse makers) and use their linguistic data-processing mechanisms to impose some sort of order on these signals.
top-down processing
Top-down processing is a processing in which we draw on our own intelligence and experience to understand a text. The reader/listener must through a puzzle-solving process, infer meanings, decide what to retain and not to retain, and move on.
productive v. receptive skills
As listeners and readers were also seen as active participants in the negotiation of meaning, the earlier active/passive dichotomy needed to be replaced. The skills required engaging in speaking and writing activities were described subsequently as productive, whereas listening and reading skills were said to be receptive. An outdated dichotomy.
active v. passive skills
When structural linguistics and behaviorist psychology were influences in language teaching, ESL/EFL teachers talked about communication in terms of four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Then, speaking and writing were collectively described as active skills, reading and listening as passive skills. An outdated dichotomy.
Morley's models of L2 listening:
listening and repeating
-Learner Goals: to pattern-match; to listen and imitate; to memorize
-Value: pattern drills, repeating dialogues, using memorized chunks of language in conversation, imitating pronunciation patterns
-Activities: pronunciation practice, basic greetings, teaching formulaic expressions, repeating directions
Morley's models of L2 listening:
listening and answering comprehension questions
-Learner Goals: to process discrete-point information; to listen and answer comp questions
-Value: enables Ss to manipulate discrete pieces of info; increases vocabulary units and grammar constructions; Ss not required to use the info. for real communicative purposes; not interactive two-way communication
Morley's models of L2 listening: task listening
-Learner Goals: to process spoken discourse for functional purposes; to listen and do something with the information, that is, carry out real tasks using the information received
-Value: task-oriented instruction rather than question-oriented; Ss go beyond just answering questions- more cognitively demanding
-Activities: jigsaws, information gap, TPR
Morley's models of L2 listening: interactive listening
-Learner Goals: to develop aural/oral skills in semiformal interactive academic communication; to develop critical listening, critical thinking, and effective speaking abilities
-Value: combines communicative/competence-oriented instruction with task-oriented instruction; -Activities: discussion/debates on controversial issues; hypothetical problems to solve; expressing opinions
linguistic messages
-our word choice and our word arrangement “map affect onto the linguistic information;” i.e. they convey our feelings
paralinguistic messages
-intonation! (are we bored, excited, etc.?)
-our attitude/feelings about what we are saying is conveyed through vocal features (tone quality, rate, rhythm, stress, etc.)
extralinguistic messages
-body postures, movements, gestures, facial expressions, facial gestures, eye contact, personal space, touching, etc.
It refers to background knowledge, i.e., the larger-order mental frameworks of knowledge. It is a skill used to increase predictive power for future communicative situations, such as predicting actors, events, action sequences and alternative outcomes. (page78, 90, Celce-Murcia)
language use tasks
The purpose is to give students practice in listening for information and then immediately doing something with it. For example, listening and performing operations, Students listen to a passage and then construct a figure, or draw a map.
language analysis tasks
The purpose is to give students opportunities to analyze selected aspects of both language structure (form) and language use (function) and to develop some personal strategies to facilitate learning. The goal is to bring up students’ conscious awareness about how language works. For example, analyzing features of “fast speech” can help student learn to understand the rapid patterns of contextualized speech.
transactional language
It is a message oriented “business-type” talk and focuses on content. This type of language function normally occurs in a business service environment, such as at a bank. It is used for giving instruction, explaining, giving directions, ordering, checking on the correctness of details, and so on. The premium is on message clarity and precision. (page73, Celce-Murcia)
interactional language
It is a person oriented “social-type” talk and focuses on social relationships between speakers, such as casual conversations at social settings. Maintaining cordial social relationships is more important than giving information. The premium is to identify with the other person’s concerns, be nice to the other person, and save face for the other person. (page73, Celce-Murcia)
content schemata
: includes cultural knowledge, topic familiarity, and previous experience with a field. Basically, this is all the information you know about a topic (baseball, the medical industry, paint...).
formal schemata
: includes people's knowledge of discourse forms: text types, rhetorical conventions, and the structural organization of prose. An example of this might be knowing how to write a book.
stress/unstress system
· Stressed words are the “information bearing units” in utterances. These generally are the main verbs (not modals or auxiliaries), nouns, adverbs and adjectives. These are called lexical or content words. Mendelsohn says that paralinguistic signals (will help students pick out content words besides just the added stress on a particular word.
primary sentence stress
· Primary sentence stress is where new information is given to the listener by the speaker. It is a part of the stress-timed rhythm of English where according to Mendelsohn, students can be taught to hear the word that is most important to the speaker.
intrinsic prior knowledge
· “This is knowledge that listeners have gained from what has gone on before the utterance in the text being listened to”. The student is drawing on knowledge from within the text being listened to.
extrinsic world knowledge
· This is world knowledge, not necessarily based on the immediate source or text. This type of knowledge is sometimes called encyclopedic knowledge.
when learners don’t have all of the information and try to guess the total meaning
a more subtle and “higher level” of processing than predicting. Everything is comprehensible, but there is implicit meaning outside of the utterances. Listeners may miss the causal relationship between two statements.
blind guessing
- In teaching listening strategies, we need to convince our students that predicting and inferencing are not the same as blind guessing. They need to be convinced that it is good and necessary to guess.
- the accepted formula or rhetorical pattern of a particular piece of discourse. It can be on a “larger” level (e.g., a church service) or a “micro” level (e.g., a prayer).
Genres have “cue words” and conventions which are valuable signals to the listeners. Making use of genre identification when predicting is a good example of top-down processing in listening.
utterance completion activity
can be used at a low level of proficiency. Ss hear half utterances (“My friend went, but I...”) and Ss complete them.
eavesdropping activity
listeners eavesdrop on a series of short conversations at a party or other busy place. They guess what the people are talking about and write down whether they would like to join the conversation.
Setting, Interpersonal relationships, mood, topic
two-way communication
language for interactional purposes, such as in dialogues and telephone conversations
one-way communication
language for transactional purposes, such as a lecture or watching TV