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68 Cards in this Set

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sheltered English / SDAIE
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English, also known as sheltered instruction; classes that have language and content objectives. “umbrella metaphor” of ELLs being protected from overwhelming language/content. specialized immersion, as Ss come from different L1 backgrounds.
mainstreaming
Ss attend specially-designed content-area classes. Ss have same L1 and L2 level.
Found more in EFL contexts.
immersion
when ELLs are judged proficient, they’re placed into regular curriculum
submersion
Ss are placed into regular content-area classes with no special ELD instruction
transitional bilingual programs
T teaches subject matter in native language combined with
ESL component. Ss build early cognitive concepts in L1 but are often mainstreamed before ready.
maintenance bilingual programs
Ss continue throughout school years to learn at least part of
subject matter in L1. Encourages continued development of L1, but is expensive.
enrichment programs
Ss take subject matter courses in a foreign language while the bulk of
education is in the L1. Ss are not doing this for survival purposes, but to enrich themselves culturally and linguistically. (e.g., two-way immersion)
pre-academic programs
designed for Ss who anticipate
entering college-level studies.
EAP
English for Academic Purposes—any course, module, or workshop where Ss are taught to deal with academically related language or content
ESP
(English for Special Purposes)—specifically focused on professional fields of study (e.g.,
Business Writing); usually refers to disciplines in which people can get university degrees
Voc/Tech (VESL)
(Vocational and Technical) –targets Ss who are learning trades or arts
literacy programs
programs designed for Ss whose L1 reading/writing skills are low
social/survival curricula
usually offered in adult ed programs—vary from conversational necessities to American culture. Usually don’t progress beyond intermediate level
CLT
Communicative Language Teaching
ELD
English Language Development – programs designed for school-age children
ALM
Audiolingual Method
literate/preliterate
S has skills involved with learning to read; S cannot read in L1 or L2
nonliterate
writing system exists, but S cannot read in L1
notional/functional syllabus
an approach to how curricula should be designed. Focused on pragmatic purposes; curricula should cover different language functions in different contextual (notional) settings, which help learners realize language functions (e.g., reporting, declining) and improve communicative competence.
CUP
Common Underlying Proficiency (Cummins)--below surface features, L1 and L2 share basic language skills
SUP
Separate Underlying Proficiency (Cummins)--L1 and L2 don’t share basic language skills; knowledge of one will not aid knowledge in another
BICS/CALP
Cummins introduced a distinction between Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. BICS – within 2 years of initial exposure; CALP – at least 5 years
linguistic interdependence principle
literacy should be encouraged in L1, as it will aid in L2 (CUP)
display question
questions that elicit info already known by the teacher
referential question
questions that ask for info not know by the questioner
backward build-up drills
technique used for teaching pronunciation, T has Ss repeat a sentence starting with the last elements and backbuilding to the beginning of the sentence
substition drills
technique in ALM, Ss repeat the same sentence but change one component
cognitive ability
whether abstract rules and principles are understood vs concrete examples of
those rules; age, L1 literacy, and proficiency level are factors
peripheral processing
primary difference b/n adult and child learners. Children have “peripheral” attention to language; they don’t pay attention to abstract rules.
false beginner
a learner with prior instruction or exposure to English
true beginner
a learner with no prior instruction or exposure to English
comprehension-based teaching approach
emphasizes CI (e.g., TPR and Natural Approach)
production-based teaching approach
emphasizes output of learners (ALM, Silent Way, Direct Method, GT)
humanistic/psychosuggestive-based teaching approach
emphasizes affective filters of learners (desuggestopedia, Community Language Learning)
cooperative and collaborative learning
Cooperative Learning-noncompetitive pair and group work in which Ss share information and work cooperatively to achieve their goals.

Collaborative learning=The learner engages “with more capable others” (teachers, advanced peers, etc.) who provide assistance and guidance.
learner centered instruction
Focuses on the needs and the goals of the learner. Learner has control of his learning and works with peers in groups. Gives input and opinions.
Is given materials and techniques that enhance his creativity, sense of competence and self-worth.
interactive learning
when the communicative purpose of language compels us to create
opportunities for genuine interaction
task-based instruction
Instruction where Ss learn as they are completing a task and are interacting.

Focuses on a whole set of meaningful, authentic, real-world tasks.
whole language education
Instructional approach that brings together 2 interconnected concepts:

1. Language is not the sum of many dissectible and discrete parts. Ts need to integrate the 4 skills in the classroom.

2. Teaching a language enables learners to understand the system of social practices.
content based instruction (CBI)
Instruction which integrates content learning with language learning.

Language is not presented directly, but it’s introduced via the content of other subjects.

Ex. SDAIE (Sheltered English classes), ESP
packaged/designer methods
Innovative methods to teach language that are:
1. Available as a package with syllabus, techniques and exercises
2. Identified with a single personality or “guru”
3. Marketed with ready-made material

Community Language Learning – Curran 1972
Silent Way – Gattegno 1972
Total Physical Response – Asher 1977
Suggestopedia – Lozanov 1979
Natural Approach – Krashen & Terrell 1983
inductive/deductive
Inductive-Ss infer or discover the rule or generalization from a set of examples on their own.

Deductive -Ss are given the rule and they apply it to examples.
instrumental/integrative motivation
Instrumental motivation
= the intensity of one’s drive in order to attain certain career, educational, or financial goals.

Integrative motivation = the intensity of one’s drive to learn a language for personal growth and cultural enrichment. Desire for acculturation
monitor
Internalized editor that makes changes and polishes what the acquired systems have produced and activated when 3 conditions are present:
1. S has sufficient time.
2. S is focused on correctness.
3. S knows the rule.

Krashen says T should create conditions for Acquisition rather then Learning so Monitor is not activated.
affective filter
An imaginary barrier that can prevent Ss from acquiring language from available input.

When the affective filter is high, Ss are tense and anxious. Ss will filter out input. When the affective filter is low, this is ideal for L2 learning.
monitor model
Original name for Krashen’s input hypothesis
acquisition/learning
2 independent systems of L2 learning

1. Acquisition –involuntary and effortless picking up of a language as a result of natural exposure to L2 with no attention to language forms or error monitoring.

2. Learning – conscious rule-learning in formal instruction setting. Inferior to acquisition
comprehensible input (CI)
Input that is one step beyond learners’ current stage of linguistic proficiency
natural order hypothesis
Krashen’s view that L2 learners acquire L2 in a predictable sequence.

Krashen rejects grammatical sequencing, though-- Just says it will happen (Believes L1 learners are like L2 learners in this regard.)
silent period
Delay of oral production until speech emerges
speech emergence
Speech emergence is the beginning of oral production in Krashen and Terrell’s “early-production stage”
intrinsic/extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic – the drive aimed at bringing about internally rewarding consequences--e.g., feeling of competence and self-determination.

Extrinsic motivation : One is motivated by something outside oneself—good grades, prizes, compliments, degrees, etc.
automaticity
Child-like subconscious processing of L2 with only peripheral attention to language forms.
strategic investment
The extent to which the learner dedicates time, effort and attention to L2 learning in the form of strategies for comprehending and producing the language.
risk taking
The extent to which learners are willing to attempt to produce and interpret language that is a bit beyond their absolute certainty.
interlanguage
(Selinker) A systematic but dynamic developmental process of L2 learning.
communicative competence
Hymes (1971) term:
the linguistic competence of the “ ideal native speaker’s” ability to use language appropriately in social context.

Canale and Swain (1980) identified five components of communicative competence:
1. Grammatical competence
2. Discourse competence
3. Sociocultural competence
4. Strategic competence (Go Down South Soon)
subtractive bilingualism
The first language is partially or completely lost as L2 is acquired. Often the result of learning a second language when own’s first language skills are not fully developed.
additive bilingualism
When the L1 is maintained as the L2 is acquired.
context-embedded/reduced activities
Context embedded – Activities in which language is received and sent for meaningful purposes within familiar situations.

Context-reduced – Activities in which language is received or sent in abstract, unfamiliar situations.
language proficiency
Observable behavior of what an individual can and cannot do in a language.
proficiency scale
Specific guidelines used to describe language ability at various levels according to agreed-upon standards. (i.e. ACTFL p. 97; California Pathways)
ACTFL
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages - A council that publishes a book describing 9 levels of language proficiency:
Novice (-low, -mid, -high)
Intermediate (-low, -mid, -high)
Advanced (Advanced, Advanced Plus)
Superior
with a detailed description of what the Ts are able to control in each of the four major language skills.
concrete operations
Piaget (1972) term for child’s developmental intellectual stage in which children are incapable of abstract thinking or concepts;
abstraction (abstract operational thought)
Piaget (1972) term for teenagers’ developmental intellectual stage
in which learners are capable of abstract operational thought around the age of 12.
authentic language
Authentic language has characteristics of genuine language that Ss can encounter in real life.
controlled processing
Limiting the amount of information that a teacher can give to the learners. Not teaching everything at once.
controlled to free techniques
A continuum of teaching techniques describing the extent to which a teacher maintains control over the learning activities.

The higher the students’ proficiency, the fewer controlled techniques the teacher uses.