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116 Cards in this Set

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The primarily scientific study of the affective, behavioral and cognitive reactions to sport settings, including the reactions of both participants and fans.
Sport Psychology
Improve performance, Enhance youth experience, overcome pressures of comp, psychological assistance with rehab.
Goals of Sport Psychology
What do Sports Psychologist do?
Educate, Research, Application
An informal activity such as kicking a ball around with oneself or snowball fight.
Play
An activity engaged in for diversion or fitness and exemplified by jogging or skiing
Recreation
More formal or organized activities such as pickup basketball involving groups.
Game
A competitive activity involving physical skill, at least 2 competitors, following formal rules and occurring within a formal organizational framework
Sport
Learns behavior and models it through others. Argued that this is the main way that players learn skills.
Social Learning THeory
There are 4 steps to Observational Learning
Attention, Retention, Production, Motivation
A stimulus with potential of triggering a stress response.
Stressor
Physiological, cognitive or emotional response to a stressor. It is when the perceived demands of an act outweigh the perceived resourced of the individual.
Stress
Characteristics of stressors:
Unpredictable, uncontrollable, unfamiliar
Demands outweigh resources.
Threat
Demands meet or are exceeded by resources
Challenge
Negatively charged emotional state characterized in terms of discomfort. Can include negative interpretations of past, present or future environmental demands.
Anxiety
Inverted U. Moderators include:
Yerkson, Dodson Law
Easy tasks are best performed under
High Arousal
Difficult tasks are best performed under
Low Arousal
High skilled athletes perform better under
High Arousal
Low skilled Athletes perform better under
low arousal
Speed and power sports are performed optimally under
High Arousal
controlled sports which are performed better under
Low arousal
Attempting to change, alter or remove the stressor.
Active Coping
Reflects an attempt to deal with or manage the anxiety in a temporary manner without confronting the stressor itself (drinking).
Passive Coping
Hooked up to a machine which measures physiological changes in your body, so you can learn to control them. Uses operant conditioning.
Biofeedback
Stress Inoculation Technique (SIT)
1. Discussions are held with the athlete about the feelings experienced in certain competitive situations.
2. Educational program is intensified and the athlete learns about self regulation skills.
3. Specific coping behaviors are prescribed and the athlete is taught to transform negative thoughts into positive statements.
4. Athlete implements strategies into the game.
Anschels COPE Model
1. Controlling Emotions: Relax, and breathe. Calm down.
2. Organize Input: Analyze what went wrong. Take in the meaningful information from criticism and filter out irrelevant msgs.
3. Plan Response: What should I do now? Organize a strategy.
4. Execute Response: DO IT!
A positive outlook on life which can be learned by focusing on the positive aspects of a given situation.
Learned Optimism
Stop negative thoughts from occurring.
Thought Stoppage
When negative thoughts occur, and the individual learns to manage them with logic, reasoning, and positive self talk.
Countering
Turn the negative self thought into positive msg through the following: “I feel nervous, but it is natural to feel this way.”
Reframing
Psychological activity evokes physical characteristics of any object, person or place that is absent from our perception.
Imagery
Imagining specific sports skills like shooting the basketball.
Cognitive Specific Imagery
Imagining your whole game or strategy throughout.
Cognitive General Imagery
Imagining the achievement of specific goals
Motivational Specific
Imagining the regulation of anxiety.
Motivational General Arousal
This is 1st person. It is imagining YOU doing the move and is often more successful than 3rd person.
Internal Imagery
This is 3rd person. Also helps but not as much.
External Imagery
Minute activity in the needed muscles can lead to more strength and better performance in those muscles during competition.
Psycho neuromuscular Theory
Provides the mental code and preparation for performance during competition.
Symbolic Learning Theory
The process of ensuring that members of a profession meet certain set standards.
Credentialing
A credentialing procedure defined by statute and intended to regulate professional conduct.
Licensure: Statutory
Nonstatutory credentialing procedures.
Certification & Registry
A relationship such as being a coach and a pall that calls into question a person’s integrity by creating a conflict of interest
Dual Relationship
The debate about whether sport psychology is a subspecialty of physical education or subspecialty of psychology.
Who can do what debate
Bull wrestling, bull vaulting, and other acrobatic activities centered on bulls on Crete, in the Minoan Period.
Taureador Sports
Archery, boxing, and other sports intended to distract Greek soldiers from the brutality of warfare through physical competition.
Funeral Games
Homers epic about the travels and adventures of Odysseus after the Trojan War. An important source of info on Greek wrestling
Oddysey
An athletic contest requiring skill in both boxing and wrestling.
Pankration
A single course footrace.
Stadion
A double course footrace down one side of the stadium, around a turning post and back.
Diaulos
A long course race.
Dolichos
Winner of numerous wrestling championships at the Olympics and other competitions.
Milo of Croton
Event in which professionally trained fighters were paired off in arena to engage in mortal combat.
Gladatorial Combat
Animals fought and killed each other or men and animals fought for survival.
Venationes
Combat between two mounted knights wielding lances. Goal was to unseat a competitor from his horse.
Joust
Early version of handball.
Harpastum
Ninepin bowling
Skittles
Form of Handball
Fives
Ice, street or field hockey.
Shinny
A game played with a ball and bat developed into baseball.
Rounders
Probably the first popular song with a sporting theme.
Camptown Races
A race between boats powered by oars.
Rowing Regatta
The sports governing body founded in 1887 that is charged with responsibility for governance and promotion of amateur sports in the US.
Amateur Athletic Union
Originally printed on blue paper, that prohibited certain forms of entertainment and recreation on Sundays.
Blue Laws
A psychologist, who while a grad student, conducted the first sport psychology experiment; it focused on factors that affect the pace of cyclists.
Norman Tripplet
A psychologist at the University of Illinois who in 1923 developed the first sport psychology course and two years later opened the first sport psychology research lab.
Coleman Griffith
Type of learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus alone elicits a desired response.
Classical Conditioning
Stimulus that elicits an involuntary (automatic) response.
Unconditioned Stimulus
An automatic response to a particular stimulus.
UCR
A previously neutral event that elicits a response when paired with UCS.
CS
The response that is elicited by a stimulus that ordinarily would not elicit such a response.
CR
A form of classical conditioning that promotes confidence by pairing stressful thoughts with behavior that is incompatible with an anxiety reaction.
Reciprocal Inhibition
Type of learning that takes place in response to the application or withdrawal of rewards and punishments.
Operant Learning
Use of rewards to increase likelihood of behavior occurring again.
Positive Reinforcement
Withholding of an aversive stimulus if a desired behavior occurs.
Negative Reinforcement
Use of an aversive stimulus in response to an undesired behavior
Punishment
: Loss of a reward or a pleasant stimulus in response to an undesired behavior.
Ommission Training
Coaching techniques based on the identification of specific targeted behaviors rather than on impressions and poorly defined training criteria.
Effective Behavioral Coaching
A measurement or set of data used as a basis for comparison.
Baseline
Reinforcement of behavior by consistently praising correct performance and selectively ignoring errors.
Differential Reinforcement
Selective reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired response.
Shaping
A reinforcement technique in which formal evaluations are publicly displayed.
Public Recording
A type of research design involving recording during nontreatment, a treatment period , and nontreatment condition.
ABA Design:
A procedure that ensures the persistence of desired behaviors after reinforcement is ended.
Fading
Reinforcement that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a primary reinforcer elicits the same response as the primary reinforcer.
Conditioned Reinforcement
Stimulus Response chain in which each response except the last serves as a signal for the next response.
Chaining
Behavioral chain in which all behaviors are completed at once
Total Chain
Behavioral chain emphasizing step by step mastery in a 1,2,3,4 manner.
Forward Chain
Behavioral chain in which behaviors are mastered in a backward direction.
Backward Chain
The idea that the opportunity to engage in a preferred activity can be used as reward for engaging in a less preferred activity.
Premack Principle
Penalizing undesirable behavior by taking away a reward object previously gained for appropriate behavior.
Response Cost
Practice session in which training trials are separated by long periods of rest.
Distributed Practice
Practice sessions in which training is crammed into a short time frame.
Missed Practice
Rewarding a desired response some of the time.
Intermittent Reinforcement
An all inclusive broad ranging continuum of physiological and psychological activation at any point in time.
Arousal
A negatively charged emotional state characterized by internal discomfort and nervousness.
Anxiety
Outerlayer covering of brain
Cerebral Cortex
Part of nervous system that regulates involuntary action such as by the heart and glands.
Autonomic Nervous System
Situational apprehension, the intensity of which varies with the strength of the fear eliciting cue.
State Anxiety
: State anxiety characterized by worry and emotional distress.
Cognitive State Anxiety
State anxiety manifested through physical symptoms such as rapid heart beat.
Somatic State Anxiety
Disproportionate fear of a broad range of situations.
Trait Anxiety
A test intended to measure somatic anxiety and two components of cognitive anxiety: Worry and disruption of concentration.
Sport Anxiety Scale
A test intended to measure trait anxiety related to sport.
Sport Competition Anxiety Test
A variant of flooding in which the therapist systematically extinguishes the anxiety produced by a series of fear eliciting images.
Implosive Therapy
The use of an antagonistic UCR in order to condition competing responses to the CS that will compete with the existing conditioned response. The goal is to replace the conditioned anxiety reaction with a more tolerable alternative.
Counter Conditioning
Training that teaches a person to trigger a series of physiological reactions that signal relaxation.
Relaxation training
A procedure in which a person learns to tense and then relax selected muscle groups in order to evoke a relaxation response.
Progressive Relaxation
A variant of counderconditioning in which the therapist systematically pairs anxiety arousing events with relaxation or some other conflicting behavior.
Systematic Desensitization
An operant technique that rewards a person for overcoming anxiety by approaching anxiety producing stimulus step by step.
Reinforced Practice
A mental preparation strategy in which the athlete utilizes relaxation training, imagery and skill practice in a simulated environment.
Visuomotor Behavioral Rehearsal
Maintaining control of ones thoughts in order to keep a positive, confident perspective and avoid negative self talk.
Cognitive Control
An altered state of consciousness characterized by increased receptiveness to suggestion.
Hypnosis
A strategy intended to create a state of energy and mental readiness that gives a competitor or psychological advantage.
Psych Up Strategy
A psych up strategy in which the athlete concentrates on images of powerful machines or animals.
Energizing Imagery