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59 Cards in this Set

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DEFINE GROUP DYNAMICS
study of behavior in groups designed to advance our knowledge about the nature of groups, group development, and the interrelationships between groups and the individual
DEFINE AUDIENCE EFFECTS
refers to consequences of behavior performed in the presence of others
Triplett's finding
improvement in performance when others are present
ZAJONC 1965
performance not always improved with others present; presence of others fascilitates performance of simple tasks and inhibits performance of complex tasks
SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY
presence of others increases an individual's tendency to perform the dominant response and decreases the tendency to perform the dominant response
(8) Characteristics of a Group
1. collective identity
2. common fate
3. sense of shared purpose
4. structured patterns of interaction
5. structured modes of communication
6. personal and task interdependence
7. member self-categorization
8. interpersonal attraction
COLLECTIVE IDENTITY
members see themselves as distinct from other teams
COMMON FATE
regardless of individual performance, members win or lose as a team
SENSE OF SHARED PURPOSE
collectively, a team wants to win
STRUCTURED PATTERNS OF INTERACTION
patterns of interaction develop between certain players or coaches
STRUCTURED MODES OF COMMUNICATION
terms used in sport are understandable to team members
PERSONAL AND TASK INTERDEPENDENCE
dependence on others to play a team sport
MEMBER SELF-CATEGORIZATION
members consider themselves to be part of the team
INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION
members socialize with each other
(3) Foundations of group behavior
1. group composition
2. group environment
3. structure of the group
DEFINE GROUP'S COMPOSITION
degree of homogeneity versus heterogeneity across two specific domains: personal attributes/psychological charactersitics and skills and abilities of group members
PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES
(EITZEN)
more homogeneous the team members were around attributres, the fewer cliques formed and greater the chance of goal attainment
SKILLS AND ABILITIES
research shoging that groups composed of members with diverse skills and abilities outperform those where there is greater uniformity of skills; groups performance depends on its members abilities
GROUP SIZE
Increasing numbers (+ve consequences)
chance of finding quality atheltes is enhanced and likelihood of atheletes expanding their social network
GROUP SIZE
Increasing numbers (-ve consequences)
increased perceptions of crowding, anxiety, and decreased member satisfaction/cohesion
STEINER (1972)
potential productivity of a group increases as the number of group members increases; eventually, with further increases in group size, productivity plateaus and further increases in group size do not impact group performance; individual members of the team decrease their productivity when team size increases
RINGELMANN EFFECT (1913)
additive tasks resulted in decreased individual productivity; increasing the number of individuals, the productivity decreased proportionally: TENDENCY FOR GROUPS TO BECOME LESS EFFECTIVE AS SIZE OF GROUP INCREASES
Why might people fail to be as productive as they could be when in a group? (2) causes
1. coordination losses that result from inefficition enteractions/coordination between team members
2. individuals may be less motivated to work hard when working a group
SOCIAL LOAFING
reduction of effort by individuals working in a group
(4) Reasons for Social Loafing
1. increased arousal- presence of others results in increased arousal levels
2. evaluation apprehension- when others are watching, we fear failure and embarassment
3. distraction-less focused on task-relevant stimuli
4. interferes with learning-may inhibit the dominant response
(4) ways of Reducing Social Loafing
1. acknoledge all team member's contributions to the overall perforamnce of the team
2. develop respect among players, not only for the starters but for members of the practice squad as well
3. have team members work on interesting and/or challenging tasks
4. teams may assist individual goal-setting and monitoring programs
DEFINE GROUP STRUCTURE
refers to stable pattern of interaction among team members
DEFINE GROUP DEVELOPMENT
collection of individuals, with minimal ties to one another, develop over time into a cohesive unit, complete with identity, structure, norms and roles
MODELS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
linear- team development advances to each successive stage with no regression to previous stage
pendular- team development swings back and forth between stages
(5) developmental stages of group
1. forming
2. storming
3. norming
4. performing
5. adjourning
FORMING
interpersonal relations- explore relationships;familiarity develops

member behavior-task exploration;methods to achieve task
STORMING
interpersonal relations- rebellion between members and leader

member behavior-resistance arises
NORMING
interpersonal relations-feelings of unity;roels develop

member behavior-agreement on how to achieve goals
PERFORMING
interpersonal relations-relationships stabilized;mutual cooperation

member behavior-emphasis on performance
ADJOURNING
interpersonal relations-contact decreases;reduced dependency;regret

member behavior-completion of task
DEFINE ROLE
shared expectation for behavior that serves to differentiate group members
ROLE PERCEPTION
individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation
ROLE CLARITY
knowing his or her role contributes to the overall goals of the team; can focus attention on performing assigned role to best of ability
(3) Types of Role Conflict
1. intrarole
2. interrole
3. person-role
INTRAROLE
cause- single role produces contradictory demands on person in that role

example- football player first isntructed to be aggressive, then reprimanded when he receives penalties for his aggressive style of play
INTERROLE
cause- conflicting expecancies between 2 roles occupied by the same individual

example- player-manager in baseball whose responsibilities maybe be conflicting at times (to players and front office)
PERSON-ROLE
cause-person is either unwilling to carry out duties of the role to which he/she has been assigned

example- athlete who is moved to a new position on a team in college
DEFINE NORMS
structured rules that govern the manner in which the group is organized and maintained
WHY ARE NORMS IMPORTANT?
(robbins 1992)
1. facilitates team's success
2. inc. predictability of team members' behavior
3. reduces potential for embarassing interpersonal problems
4. promotes central values of the group
HOW ARE NORMS DEVELOPED?
(robbins 1992)
1. explicit statements
2. critical events in team's history
3. primacy
4. carryout behaviors
(3) factors maintainance of norms
1. normative influences
2. informational influences
3. interpersonal influences
NORMATIVE INFLUENCES
cause consistency of thoughts,feelings,and actions; members will perceive sense of obligation to honor norms
INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCES
opinions are changed after learning the opinions of others
INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES
bargaining and persuasion (perhaps even threats) are used to convince people to conform and maintain norms
DEFINE STATUS
degree to which an individual's contribution is curical to the success and pretige of the group, how much power that individual has, and the extent to which the person embodies some idealized characteristic
High Status individuals
greater impact on group decisions and judgement patterns than do lower status teammates
(3) CORE COMPONENTS OF GROUP DYNAMICS
1. group composition
2. group environment
3. group structure
DEFINE GROUP PROCESS
represent the dynamic interactions that are caharacterisitc of group membership
(3) ASPECTS OF GROUP PROCESSES
1. collective efficacy
2. social support
3. groupthink
DEFINE COLLECTIVE EFFICACY
team's collective expectation for success; based on teams judgments of teams capabilities
DEFINE SELF-EFFICACY
belief in one's capability to produce a given level of performance
DEFINE GROUPTHINK
(janis 1972)
style of thinking that overrides group members' motivation to realistically asses alternative behaviors
WHEN DOES GROUPTHINK OCCUR MOST OFTEN?
when certain characters are present: high levels of cohesion, teams which are relatively isolated from outside influences, autocratic leadership, and homogeneity around personal attributes
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF GROUPTHINK
-limits flexibility of teams performance by lowering individual creativity
-personal pressure to conform
-decrease openness of group members and hinder their growth potential