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69 Cards in this Set

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1. Sport psychology specialists have three roles. These include
A. teaching, research, and consulting
b. teaching, administration, and consulting
c. research, administration, and teaching
d. teaching, intervention, and research
e. intervention, teaching, and consulting
A. teaching, research, and consulting
2. Which of the following will the field of sport and exercise psychology face in the future?
a. unqualified people doing consulting in sport psychology
B. few full-time positions in sport psychology involving consulting with athletes
c. the need for physical education and exercise specialists to receive sport and exercise psychology information
d. all of the above
e. a and c
B. few full-time positions in sport psychology involving consulting with athletes
3. Which type of question would NOT fall under the category of "What effect do psychological factors have on an individual's performance?"
a. Does self-confidence influence a child's ability to learn to swim?
b. How does anxiety affect a tennis player's service accuracy?
c. Does running reduce one's anxiety and depression?
d. How does punishment influence an individual's motivation to continue participation in sport?
E. How does concentration affect performance in fine motor tasks?
E. How does concentration affect performance in fine motor tasks?
4. Research by Landers and his colleagues, using biofeedback techniques to train elite marksmen to shoot between heartbeats, is a good example of a
a. cognitive–behavioral orientation
b. cognitive–affective orientation
c. behavioral orientation
d. psychophysiological orientation
e. physiological–environmental orientation
a. cognitive–behavioral orientation
5. Behavior is determined by the interaction of the environment and personal makeup of the performer. This idea is an example of a
a. cognitive–behavioral orientation
b. behavioral orientation
c. cognitive–affective orientation
d. social–psychological orientation
e. cognitive–environmental orientation
d. social–psychological orientation
6. Emotional disorders affecting sport performance, such as eating disorders and drug abuse, would best be treated by a
A. clinical sport psychologist
b. developmental psychologist
c. educational sport psychologist
d. Rogerian sport therapist
e. Gestalt sport therapist
A. clinical sport psychologist
Title: Introduction
7. Which of the following are sport and exercise psychology journals?
a. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
b. The Sport Psychologist
c. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
d. all of the above
e. a and c
D: All of the above
Title: Introduction
8.The limitations of professional practice knowledge include its
a. susceptibility to biasing influences
b. uncertain reliability
c. lack of explanations
d. all of the above
e. a and c
D. all of the above
9. Which professional sport psychology association is responsible for developing standards for certification of individuals working in applied sport psychology settings?
a. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity
b. International Society of Sport Psychology
c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
d. American Psychological Association Division 47
e. Applied Sport Psychology Society
c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
10. Sport and exercise psychology is first and foremost a
a. science
b. art
c. applied field of study
d. laboratory-based field of study
e. none of the above
A. science
12. Which of the following are sport psychology organizations?
a. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)
b. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)
c. American Sport Psychology Association
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
16. Coleman Griffith established the first research laboratory in sport psychology at the University of
a. Notre Dame
b. Illinois
c. Minnesota
d. Wisconsin
e. Iowa
B. Illinois
17. Coleman Griffith worked with all of the following famous coaches and athletes except
a. Red Grange
b. Knute Rockne
c. Dizzy Dean
d. Babe Ruth
D. Babe Ruth
18. The father of American sport psychology is
a. Coleman Griffith
b. Rainer Martens
c. Dan Landers
d. Dan Gould
e. Robert Singer
A. Coleman Griffith
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Sport psychology focuses on the concerns of the elite athlete.
b. Sport psychology focuses on the competitive sport of young athletes.
c. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings.
d. Sport psychology focuses on recreational athletes.
e. none of the above
C. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings
Educational sport psychologists usually have years of training in
a. psychology
b. education
c. sport and exercise science
d. sociology
e. educational psychology
C. sport and exercise science
Scientifically derived knowledge has some limitations, including that it
a. is reductionistic
b. is very fast to evolve
c. tends to be conservative
d. all of the above
e. a and c
A. Is reductionistic
Which of the following is NOT a general ethical principle outlined by the American Psychological Association?
a. social responsibility
b. integrity
c. professional and scientific responsibility
d. individualization
e. competence
D. Individualization
Credit for much of the development of sport psychology internationally goes to _____________, the first president of the International Society for Sport Psychology.
a. Franklin Henry
b. Dietmar Klein
c. Yuri Hanin
d. Ferruccio Antonelli
e. Gershon Tanenbaum
D. Feruccio Antonelli
Which of the following is (are) seen as a major growth area in the field in the upcoming years?
a. exercise psychology
b. life skills development
c. personality
d. all of the above
A. Excerise psychology
Which of the following is NOT a current or future trend in the field of sport and exercise psychology?
a. more emphasis on training in clinical psychology and counseling
b. increase in quantitative research methodologies
c. increased emphasis on ethics and competency
d. increased interest in psychological skills training
e. continuing tension between academic and applied sport psychology
b. increase in quantitative research methodologies
Which of the following explain(s) the sport psychology research-to-practice gap?
a. few applied forums in which to disseminate research to practitioners
b. emphasis on basic laboratory research in the 1960s and 1970s
c. emphasis on field experiments in the 1980s
d. all of the above
e. a and b
a. few applied forums in which to disseminate research to practitioners
Research by Weinberg and Gould investigating sources of stress among successful and unsuccessful elite wrestlers is a good example of a
a. social–psychological orientation
b. psychophysiological orientation
c. cognitive–behavioral orientation
d. cognitive–affective orientation
e. physiological–environmental orientation
c. cognitive- behavioral orientation
Knowledge gained through experience working in exercise and sport science field situations is called
a. empirical knowledge
b. professional practice knowledge
c. scientific knowledge
d. professional knowledge
e. theoretical knowledge
b. professional practice knowledge
The most reliable method of obtaining knowledge is
a. introspection
b. a single case study
c. systematic observation
d. scientific method
d. scientific method
The major strength of scientifically derived knowledge is its
a. validity
b. reliability
c. importance
d. impact on society
e. none of the above
b. reliability
Zajonc's social facilitation theory predicts that
a. performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience
b. performance on novel tasks is facilitated by an audience
c. performance on well-learned tasks is hindered by an audience
d. performance is not affected by an audience
e. performance is improved on both novel and well-learned tasks in front of an audience
b. performance on novel tasks is facilitated by an audience
The ultimate goal of science is
a. prediction
b. description
c. explanation
d. control
e. theory
e. theory
The major difference between how a practitioner and a researcher (using the scientific method) would investigate a problem is that the researcher's approach would be more
a. systematic
b. controlled
c. empirical
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
Which of the following is NOT a quality of scientific research?
a. controlled
b. systematic
c. empirical
d. critical
e. infallible
d. critical
Which successful coach is noted for adopting a sport science approach in his coaching?
a. "Doc" Counsilman
b. Robert Rotella
c. Jim Thorpe
d. Casey Stengel
e. a and b
a. "Doc" Counsilman
The least reliable method of obtaining knowledge is
a. introspection
b. intuition
c. shared experience
d. a single case study
e. systematic observation
b. intuition
Which of the following is NOT a method of knowing?
a. a single case study
b. shared public experience
c. introspection
d. rationalism
e. systematic observation
d. rationalism
Actively applying knowledge of sport and exercise psychology requires
a. keeping up to date on your scientific knowledge base
b. holding realistic expectations concerning the strengths and limitations of scientific principles
c. applying scientific principles in your professional practice setting
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
The strength of professional practice knowledge is its
a. holistic nature
b. innovative contribution
c. scientific validity and reliability
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
Which company (started by sport psychologist Graham Jones) has taken sport psychology concepts and applied them to the business world?
a. Lane 4 Management Group
b. TLC and Associates
c. Wal-Mart
d. Goldman-Sachs
e. AT&T
a. lane 4 management group
1. Trait anxiety refers to _________ anxiety, whereas state anxiety refers to __________ anxiety.
a. general; momentary
b. momentary; general
c. competitive; noncompetitive
d. noncompetitive; competitive
e. none of the above
a. general; momentary
When administering tests to athletes, which of the following guidelines should be followed?
a. Explain to athletes why the tests are being given.
b. Tell athletes what the tests measure.
c. Provide specific feedback concerning test results.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
Approximately how many articles have been published on sport personality in the professional sport psychology literature?
a. 100
b. 300
c. 1,000
d. 2,000
e. 5,000
c. 1,000
A weakness in the psychodynamic approach is its
a. sole focus on internal determinants of behavior
b. lack of attention to the social environment
c. sole focus on external determinants of behavior
d. a and b
e. b and c
a. sole focus on internal determinants of behavior
Recently, the psychodynamic approach has been applied to sport by Swedish sport psychologist Erwin Apitzsch. This new approach came from his work with athletes focusing on
a. the superego
b. defense mechanisms
c. ego development
d. early childhood experiences
e. conflicts between the id and superego
b. defense mechanisms
Which of the following is not a subscale from the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory?
a. concentration
b. coachability
c. goal setting
d. imagery
e. freedom from worry
d. imagery
Test anxiety is an example of a
a. trait measure
b. state measure
c. situation-specific trait measure
d. situation-specific state measure
e. none of the above
a. trait measure
Taking an intra-individual approach to psychological testing means that
a. individuals are compared against population norms
b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
c. individuals are compared to norms for their age and gender
d. individuals are compared based on objective and subjective assessments
e. none of the above
b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
Which of the following is (are) NOT a question(s) that a researcher using the interactional approach would ask?
a. Will highly anxious athletes perform better than less anxious athletes in situations that are not stressful?
b. Will extroverts perform better than introverts in a team situation?
c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?
d. Will kids with high self-esteem prefer competitive sport situations to a greater degree than kids with low self-esteem?
e. a and c
a. Will highly anxious athletes perform better than less anxious athletes in situations that are not stressful?
The interactional approach assumes that
a. situational and personal variables are codeterminants of behavior
b. personality interacts with the psychological core to determine behavior
c. highly aggressive people, for example, will usually react in an aggressive manner when placed in an aggressive situation
d. a and c
e. a and b
e. a and b
The situational approach to personality assumes that
a. individuals behave differently across situations
b. individuals behave similarly across situations
c. if the situation is strong, the effect of personality traits would be minimal
d. a and b
e. a and c
a. individuals behave differently across situations
Eysenck and Eysenck argue that personality can best be understood by focusing on which of the following traits?
a. emotionality and stability
b. introversion and extroversion
c. relaxation and anxiety
d. a and b
e. all of the above
d: a and b
The trait approach to personality assumes that
a. people behave differently in different situations
b. people behave similarly in different situations
c. personality does not change much over time
d. a and c
e. b and c
a. people behave differently in different situations
The most superficial and therefore most easily changed part of a personality structure is its
a. psychological core
b. role-related behavior
c. typical responses
d. belief system
b. role-related behavior
Which of the following is NOT a level in Hollander's model of personality structure?
a. childhood experiences
b. psychological core
c. typical responses
d. role-related behavior
e. a and b
a. childhood experiences
Which is NOT an example of a situation-specific sport inventory?
a. Sport Competition Trait Anxiety Test
b. Group Environment Questionnaire
c. Profile of Mood States
d. Trait-Sport Confidence Inventory
e. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory
c. Profile of Mood States
Recent research has been critical of some of the findings concerning the relationship between mood states and performance. Which of the following is NOT a recommended guideline for using mood profiling with elite athletes?
a. Use it as a monitor of training load.
b. Use it as a monitor of the acclimatization process.
c. Use it as a predictor of team success.
d. Use it as a monitor of emotional response to injury.
e. Use it for identification of overtrained athletes.
c. Use it as a predictor of team success.
Researchers have recently used the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) to investigate the relationship between coping skills and performance. Results have indicated that
a. good psychological coping skills help athletes get the most out of their ability
b. good psychological coping skills are associated with continued involvement in professional baseball
c. the ACSI is a good tool to use for team selection
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
Recently, the "big five" model of personality has become widely accepted. Which of the following is not one of the five personality factors in the model?
a. agreeableness
b. conscientiousness
c. neuroticism
d. extraversion
e. depression
e. depression
To better understand personality, you should
a. be a good communicator
b. be an informed consumer
c. use lots of personality tests with athletes
d. be a good observer
e. consider both personality traits and states
e. consider both personality traits and states
According to results from in-depth interviews with Olympic athletes, medalists exhibited which of the following mental strategies?
a. more positive self-talk
b. more extensive mental preparation
c. better preparedness for unforeseen negative events
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
Which of the following is (are) important when administering psychological inventories?
a. knowledge of testing principles and measurement error
b. sensitivity to one's own limitations
c. whether to use tests for team selection
d. all of the above
e. a and c
a. knowledge of testing principles and measurement error
The research criticizing Morgan's mental health model and the implications of the "iceberg profile" has argued that
a. the iceberg profile accounts for only a very small percentage of athletes' performance variation
b. the iceberg profile only differentiates athletes from nonathletes and does not differentiate between athletes of different ability levels
c. the Profile of Mood States (POMS) is not a reliable test
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b
Research in the general psychological literature indicates that nature (i.e., genetics) generally accounts for approximately what percentage of behavior?
a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 50 to 60%
e. 80 to 90%
d. 50 to 60%
Based on psychological data only, Morgan was successful in predicting ____ out of 16 rowers who eventually made the U.S. heavyweight rowing team.
a. 5
b. 12
c. 10
d. 14
e. 7
c. 10
In the iceberg profile developed by Morgan, which of the following psychological characteristics that successful athletes display is typically above the mean of the population?
a. anxiety
b. anger
c. fatigue
d. vigor
e. confusion
D. vigor
Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Successful female athletes differ in personality from female nonathletes.
b. Male and female elite athletes have similar personality profiles.
c. Female athletes are more aggressive and independent than female nonathletes.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above
Morgan developed the _________ model to help explain the relationship between personality and athletic success.
a. normative
b. mental health
c. psychological skills
d. psychopathology
b. mental health
Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Participation in competitive sport produces changes in personality structure.
b. Compared with nonathletes, individual-sport athletes are less anxious and more dependent.
c. Compared with nonathletes, team-sport athletes are more introverted and independent.
d. a and b
e. b and c
Showing a person a picture of an athlete arguing with an official and then asking the person to write about what is happening is an example of
a. objective testing
b. projective testing
c. multidimensional personality assessment
d. unidimensional personality assessment
e. psychological trait–state inventory
The research investigating the personality profiles of athletes and nonathletes has found that
a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes
b. athletes have higher levels of anxiety than nonathletes
c. athletes are more introverted than nonathletes
d. athletes have higher levels of self-esteem than nonathletes
a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes
Which of the following statements about exercise and personality is (are) true?
a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.
b. Exercise has consistently been related to changes from Type A behavior to Type B behavior.
c. Exercise participation is most strongly related to social self-concept.
d. a and b
e. a and c
c. Exercise participation is most strongly related to social self-concept.
The “big five” model of personality is important because these five characteristics
a. represent a cognitive approach to personality
b. are consistent with a behavioral approach to personality
c. have been found to exist across individuals
d. represent a state approach to personality
e. are consistent with Morgan’s mental health model
have been found to exist across individuals
The phenomenological approach to personality is consistent with the interactional approach except that it focuses on
a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself
b. the traits of an individual
c. the situation a person is dealing with at the time
d. the behavior of the individual
e. the outcome of the behavior
the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself