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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Betty Friedan
Feminine Mystique 1963
Women of the new Left
Womans Equal Actions WEA
National Womens League Caucaus
Gabe Gnirkin
Steroid Founder
Daniel Bell
Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism
Wright Mills
The Power Elite 1955
Adolphus Huxley 1954
Psychedelic Depth
Charge
What is neccecary for the commericialization of Sport?
check this
P.T. Barnum
Circus and Meusem dude
Alexander Cartwright
The baseball fraternity 1842 baseball club
Bill Veeck
First Major League Owner to consider moving St. Louis Browns
Least profitable
Art Rooney
Founded the steelers
Tammany Hall, Tim Mara
Founded the Giants
Bert Bell
Eagles Owner later apointed commish.
Organized Owners in Strong Cartel
Henry Wismer
Jets owner convices league to sell rights to ABC
When did the commercialization of sport begin?
after 1870
baseball late 1850's & 60's
Race Tracks prior to 1870
Rowing contests 1850
real sucess after 1870
real sucess
What were the conditions that made commercialization possible?
1. Popularity, sport popularity (boxing horse racing, and baseball)
2.Modernization of sport
*specializatoin of athletic skill
*Bureaucracy organization structure(hidden business of sport)
*Quantifications and records
3Urbanization
*growth of cities large enough to support pro sport collective audience concentrated market
4.Technology
Transportation system
5. Oligopoly
(control in a given area by a small number of suppliers)
6. Standardization+routinization of the product (formal rules)
7 Growth per capita income
8.Culture which valued consumption
*leisure ethic
*paying for leisure
9. Educated Citizenry
*readers, educated about sport
10. Politicians wanted to gain, $ poplularity
Techonology
Standardization
Modernization
Urbanization
Technology
Culture values consumption
Oligopy
Popularity of Sport
Educated citizenry
Growth in Income
Politicians
S M U T C O P E G P
What are the Dimensons of Profitablitly
Popularity sport
Popularity of team
Antitrust agreement cartel
Broadcasting act of '61
Merger act of '66
strength of the comish office
Subsidation
Television contract
Revenue Sharing
Method to control expenses
Expense sharing
Variables of the host city
STRES MAPP BMV
How did the Evolution of the city influence the development of organized sport and rec?
1. Nearly all contempary sports evolved or were invented in the city
2. City rationalized, specialized bureaucratic, commercialized and proffofesional the city.
3. City was primary site of sport facilities
4. Most first class athletes grew up in the city
5. Modernization of sport a result of interaction of the elements of urbanization, physical structure
social organization
urban value system
Holmes and Higgenson
Health Journals
Cartwright
Elysian Fields
P.T. Barnum
American showman, 1810-1891)
Also known as: P(hineas) T(aylor) Barnum, Barnum and Bailey, P.T. Barnum
Richard Ten broeck
an ambitious promoter from Albany, New York, renovated track in Louisiana
Kramer Pugh Starr
Green Bay Packers
1967 GB vs. Dallas Lambeau field
instant replay
What is the triple Crown?
KY Derby, Priekness, Belmont Stakes
C. Vanderbuilt
primary owner builder of saratoga Race Track
Man of War
first great super horse
Calmut Farm
Warren Wright, Eddie Arcarow
Horse Race, test of champions
Belmont stakes, gruelling
Tommas Hughes
Author of Tom's Browns school days
William A. Hulbert.
Owner of Chicago Whitestockings
Led powerful owners league, NL
Hulbert was a pitiless coal baron, determined not only to have the best team, but the most profitable one as w
National League owners who were business men with political connections
Spaulding, Wright, Hulbert
Frankie Carbo
Boxer Leader organizer in 1930's
Walter Camp
player and coach at Yale university
father of american football
1876-1882 player
80's-1910 unofficial coach
One of his first innovations was to reduce the number of players on the field for each team from fifteen to eleven
1880 he proposed replacing the rugby scrum with the scrimmage
so in 1882 Camp proposed the downs system
Camp also instituted the present point system for touchdowns (6), field goals (3), and safeties (2). As secretary of the intercollegiate football rules convention from 1877 to 1906
Henry Beach Needham
Mcclure Yellow Journalism
outlook, collier, mcclure
Henry McCracken
NYU coach, called conference to consider changing the rules
Lorin E Deland,
a military strategist, chess expert, and Harvard supporter who had never played a game of football in his life.
invented flying wedge
The Flying Wedge
Kick-off strategie mass force
What were the resolutions of the Brown Conference?
1.Instituitional Control
2. Bonafide Students
3. athletic eligibility
4. control of practice and games
5. amateur code
(conference not immiediently succsesful, falculty control not accepted.
What is the difference between intergrated (Harvard) vs. Seperate entity (Yale)?
Intergrated was Harvard and Princeton 82&'81
1. Falculty Governance
2. Budgetary control resides with falcutly
3. General Fund controls revenues and expenses

Seperate Entity
Yale '80
1. Athletic Board Governance
2. A.B. budget control
3. Athletic Fund controls revenue expenses
Aurthur Adams
ACE president who appointed 10 uni prez to for Special Commitee on Athletic Policy of American Council of Education
Walter Byers
prez of NCAA TILL '88
Howard Savage
American College Athletics
college sport reform movement report
Harry Wismer
Former sportscaster owner of the jets, convinces sell of t.v. rights to abc
Bill Veeck
first owner to consdier moving
When was the NCCA formed?
1906
James Gordon Bennet
Prizes for 2 mile regatta race
When was the IC4A formed?
1875
Principles of Conduct
Sanity Code
1. Amateurism
2. Instituional Control
3. Sound Academic Standards
4. Governing of Fin. Aid.
5. Governing Recruiting

in '48 sanity code becomes article 3 of ncaa constituition.
When was sanity code repealed?
1951
12 point plan
replaces sanity code
In 1931 the NCAA had succeeded in acomplishing what five things?
1.Established Governance Process POWERFUL supporters
2. Had increased total membership
3. Had control of the rules commitee for all major and minor college sports
4. Established controlled post season tournaments and bowls and NIT
5. Ability to use external enviroment to advantage (backfires during depression)
When does the Big Ten form?
1899
When was the first conference formed?
1895 Western Athletic Conference
Brown Conference, forrunners of the ivy leage(excluding yale)
what did it consist of
tramp athlete players switch teams
player coaches
baseball and football only two sports commericialized
What were the principal reform movements of the NCAA
1. 1905 football scandals
2. Howard Savage '29
3. Report on athletics by ACE 1952
4. George Hanford 1974
5. Knight Foundation 1991
1905 scandals
attacked eastern schools
for illegal inducements
hiring tramp athletes
paying high salaries for summer baseball
falculty collusion
cheating
squandering athletic money
gate reciepts
stadiums
burtiality in football Rosevelt october lucheon

Led to the formation of the IAAUS '06 NCAA '10 dealt mostly with playing rules
Howard Savage
author of American College Athletics
covered administrative control of athletics
the pplace of of the press
values
in college sports
ecnomics problmes
conclusion:
defects were commericialization and
negligent attitude towards educational oppourtunity

centered on abues of big time programs

savage blamed college officials
for problem

Impact
Set standard for later reform principals
Exposed college sports resistance to systematic
investigation
triggered denials
Report of the Special Commitee on Athletic Poly of the ACE
'52
1. prompted by the basketball scandals of '51
2. Authur adams apoint univ-prez
3. realeased to public
4. called for
* deemphasis plan
*reduction in post seasons bowls, recruiting practices
*movement towards intermural sports for all students
*reccomned ncaa supervision and enforcemnet powers
*opposed subsidation of players
What was the impact of the special comittee on atletic policy of '52?
1. Showed prez/instituional concern
2. ACE president commitee lacked means to implemnet observances
3. Brought NCAA to role of investigator and enforcer
4. pointed out that presidents and instiutions had little power to bring about changes
5. BIG time conferences "tried to police themselves did little.
George Hanford
An inquiry to the need for feasibility of a national study of college ath. ACE '74
Conclusions
a. College sports faced sever financial problems
b. big time college sports in the entertainment business
c. lack of debate among college prez
d. lack of scholary attention to pressing issues
e. importance of regional defferences in reform
f. regional accredidation agencies should take the lead in athletic reform
What was the impact of the Hanford Study?
Michener sport in American
Ford Foundation Grant to establish commisoin on College Athletics
NCCA Commison Mitche Riabonr revenue expenses
provided impetus for multidisciplinary study of athletics
Michener
author sport in American
Mitchell Raiborn
Ncaa commision on Revenues and Expenses
Knight Commision Principles
The educational values, practices and mission of this institution determine the
standards by which we conduct our intercollegiate athletics program.
II. The responsibility and authority for the administration of the athletics
department, including all basic policies, personnel and finances, are vested in
the president.
III. The welfare, health and safety of student-athletes are primary concerns of
athletics administration on this campus. This institution will provide studentathletes
with the opportunity for academic experiences as close as possible to
the experiences of their classmates.
IV. Every student-athlete -- male and female, majority and minority, in all sports --
will receive equitable and fair treatment.
V. The admission of student-athletes -- including junior college transfers -- will be
based on their showing reasonable promise of being successful in a course of
study leading to an academic degree. That judgment will be made by
admissions officials.
VI. Continuing eligibility to participate in intercollegiate athletics will be based on
students being able to demonstrate each academic term that they will graduate
within five years of their enrolling. Students who do not pass this test will not
play.
VII. Student-athletes, in each sport, will be graduated in at least the same proportion
as non-athletes who have spent comparable time as full-time students.
VIII. All funds raised and spent in connection with intercollegiate athletics programs
will be channeled through the institutions general treasury, not through
independent groups, whether internal or external. The athletics department
budget will be developed and monitored in accordance with general budgeting
procedures on campus.
IX. All athletics-related income from non-university sources for coaches and
athletics administrators will be reviewed and approved by the university. In
cases where the income involved the university’s functions, facilities or name,
contracts will be negotiated with the institution.
X. We will conduct annual academic and fiscal audits of the athletics program.
Moreover, we intend to seek NCAA certification that our athletics program
complies with the principles herein. We will promptly correct any deficiencies
and will conduct our athletics program in a manner worthy of this distinction.
Why was pro Football sucessful?
1. Delegate much responsibility to
commsioners office
2. Closely knit group organization of strong cartel
3. Bert Bell and Pete Rozelle
What were the problems with pro football?
Champions named
salaries had to be controlled
players played for highest bidder

sollutions
standardized contract '22
Jim thorpe 1st prez of nfl
clark first real prez of NFL