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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spirochetes multiply by
binary fission

gram neg
causes syphilis, yaws, and pinta, also non-pathogenic in oral cavity intestin, and genitalia
genus treponema
cause of relapsing fever and lyme disease
cause of leptospirosis
agent of human syphilis
treponema pallidum
treponema pallidum can be made visible by
"dark field microscopy", immunoflourescense, by deposition of silver salts on bacterial surface, or by electron microscopy
is gram stain usefull to identify treponema pallidum
no - too htin
how long will live organisms of treponema survive in whole blood? tissues?
24 hours, several days in tissues
live bacteria of treponema can be stored for many years at what temp
-80 degrees C
what is the mode of transmission for treponema pallidum
direct contact of genitalia or mucous membranes or from mother to fetus (congenital syphilis)and also transfusion with freshly obtained blood
what is the incubation period for syphilis
2-6 weeks - clincial evidence of disease is absent but bacterial replication at the site of entry as well as secondary sites is very active
primary lesion appearing 1-4 weeks after exposure to treponema - heals spontaneously also see focal lymphadenopathy
the secondary lesions caused by treponema occurs when and is characterized by what
2 weeks or 20 weeks after infection. may be generalized skin rash or mucosa

also may result in renal dysfunction or arthritis

the mucous is highly infectious
secondary syphilis may result in
arthritis, renal dysfunction, or other abnormalities - mucosal lesions are highly infectious
tertiary lesions in syphilis may occur many years after infection and may occur in
CNS, aortic valves of heart - organisms are generally not seen - there is alot of damage due to hypersensitivity
VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory test
non-specific - highly sensitive
used to test for syphilis (a flocculation test (clumping on slide with cardiolopin)
RPR (rapid plasma reagin) test
non-specific sensitive test
antigen is absorbed to carbon particles - making clumping easier to detect when testing for syphilis
what are the two non-specific tests
FTA-ABs (Fluorescent treponenal Ab - absorption) test:
specific test to confirm non-specific test for syphillis

patients serum is first absorbed with non-pathogenic treponenmes to remove non-specific antibodies. this serum is then added to slide with T-pallidum (obtained commercially), washed, and made visible by the addition of a second fluorescent antibody
at test which involves red cells coated with syphillis ag and pts serum

specific test to confirm non-specific test for syphillis

involving red cells coated with T. pallidum antigen and serum from patient
test which used antibody from patient which reacts directly in the presence of C with living T. pallidum causing organism to lose motility.
TPI (Trepomena pallidum immobilization test)
a test for syphilis may read positive in what three instances
mononulceosis, malaria and even in the absense of any disease
the incidence of false positives and negatives is higher in what tests for syphilis
VDRL and RPR (nonspecific tests) than for FTA-ABS (specific)
what is the antibiotic treatment for T. pallidum
is there a vaccine from syphilis
no - T. pallidum cannot be cultured in vitro - hard to study.

contrast to leptospira which CAN be cultured
a tropical disease caused by T. pertenue. non-venereal, transmission from sores of skin
what are the three majory groups of spirochete that cause human disease
Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira
is there transplacental tramission of yaws? positive syphilis test?
no transplacental tramission and yes positive syphilis test
how do you treat yaws
disease common among children in syria. simila to yaws. organism is subspecies of T. pallidum (endemicum)
disease of central and south america caused by T. carateum. flat, non-ulcerating skin lesions of hands an feet, scalp, heal spontaneously - sensitive to penicillin
Borrelia causes what two diseases
Relapsing fever and lyme disease
the relapse of fever caused by borrelia is due to?encoded by?
antigenic variation of surface protiens - which is encoded on a linear plasmid
treatment of lyme disease
tetracycline (ampicillin for young children)
Borrelia burgdorferi causes
lyme disease
treatment of T. pallidum
Penicillin (or tetracycline, erythromycin)
vaccine for T. pallidum?
no effective one available
"mother yaws"
primary lesion in laws caused by T. pertenue - resembles a rasberry
lesions in this disease may appear in bones and disfigure the face - organism is sensitive to penicillin
yaws - T. pertenue
organism does not grow on artifiial media but grows in chick embryo
how do you diagnose lyme disease
symptoms and on expanding bright red rash. sometimes ELISA to detect Ab against Borrelia Burgdorferi
what is the pathogenesis of Borrelia causing lyme disease
1. bite by tick - papule w/ expandig erythema
2. 3-14 days later - fever, headache, stiff neck, malaise
3. various neurologic and cardiac involvements
4. migrating episodes of arthritis.
5. chronic arthritis if not treated
what is a late manifestation of lyme disease which has gone untreated
chronic arthritis - 3-5 yrs after first symptoms (also seen in those who dont respond to tetracycline treatment)
treament for lyme disease (children vs adults)
tetracycline for adults and ampicillin for young children
The vaccine for lyme disease contains what
outer Surface protein A (OspA)
which organism does not have a requirement for iron
Borellia Burgdorferi (causes Lyme disease)
what metal does Borellia Burgdorferi need in higher numbers
how is leptospirosis transmitted?
by rats, dog urine through skin, upper alimentary mucosa
manifestations of this disease include nephritis, jaundice, meningitis
pathogenesis of leptospirosis
enters blood, invades various tissues, organs particularly kidney, liver, meninges, conjunctiva
Weil's disease
a disease caused by leptospirosis, infectious jaundice caused by one serotype leads to renal hepati injury with fatality rate as high as 25%
how do you diagnose leptospira
it can be grown and identified by serological methods
treatment of leptospirosis
penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline
vaccine for leptospira
none available
has no cell wall
smallest bacteria with autonomous reproduction
adds the the rigidity of the cell membrane of mycoplasma
do mycoplasma have spores
three features of mycoplasma colonies
1. slow growth
2. fried egg appearance
3. sterols needed
how does m.pneumoniae attach
P1 complex
how do you distinguish m. pneumoniae from other mycoplasma
fermenting glucose
m.pneumoniae can pass through what size filter
.4 mm
mycoplasma pneumoniae cause what kind of pneumoniae
atypical (spotty looking) also called summer pneumonia
why does the severity of summer pneumonia increase with age
prior exposure and predisposition to inflammmation
during early stages of pneumonia, serum taken from pts may show what three things
1. cold hemagglutinins
2. positive C fixation test
3. DNA probes
a type of diagnostic test useful becuase of the slow growth of m.pneumoniae
DNA probes
this test may be positive in only have of pts with m.pneumoniae and includes the agglutinate human type O rbc
cold hemagglutinins (doesnt work at 37 degrees
see m.pneumonia
elaboration of H202 / superoxide resulting in host cell membrane and DNA damage as well as altered energy metabolism
the way in which m.pneumonia evades the immune system
cell surface variable lipoproteins (VLPs)

(VLPs also stabalize the bacterial membrane)
how is m.pneumonia spread
close contact e.g playmates more than classmates

spread secondarily through family
why would you not treat m.pneumonia with penecillin
penicillin inhibits cell wall synthesis and m.p does not have cell wall
what is the treatment for m.penu
erythromycin or tetracycline (if appropriate)
vaccine for M. pneu
no vaccine

immunity is short lived and indications are that the immune response itself plays a majory role in the disease symptoms
commonly found in the female genital tract and highly correlated with various infections such as PID, endometritis, low birth weights, postpardum fever
M. homminis
resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to tetracycline
M. hominis
produces super antigen that may be repsponsible for some infectious arthritis
M. arthritidis
common inhabitant of gentital tract and responsible for perhaps 20% of nongonoccocal urethritis (NGU)not attributed to chlamydia
ureaplasma urealyticum
hydrolyszes urea
ureaplasma urealyticum
U. urealyticum is associated with infertility in males and is reversible with
M. genitalium has been linked be to
NGU in males
M. fermentans and M. incognitius have suggested to be cofactors for
HIV infections
will you see M. pneumonaie in gram stain of a sputum sample
no - they dont come up on a gram stain
how is m.pneumonia usually diagnosed
clinical picture - plus cold hemagglutinins, postivie c fixation, and DNA probes
gliding motility, attachment via P1, and ciliotosis are all pathogenic mechanisms used by
m. pneumonia
Spirochets genus treponema are found naturally where
oral cavity, intestine, and genetalia
with regards to syphilis when would a serological test be positive
late primary
a modern floculation test used to test for syphilis
Venearal Desease Research Lab test (VDRL)
a new version of the VRDL test where antigen is absorbed on carbon particles making clumping easier to detect
rapid plasma reagin
in terms of visibility using microscopy how does borrelia and treponemun differ
treponemal you need dark microscopy and borrelia you can see using ordinary light microscopy
B. recurrentis causes
causes relapsing fever

transmitted human to human via body louse
generally an occupational hazard of sewage workers, slaughter house workers, or people in rat infested areas
leptospira (transmitted via animal urine)