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90 Cards in this Set

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Spermatozoa
sperm
gestation
9 month pregnancy period
Fertilization takes place in..
the uterine/fallopian tubes
parturition
child birth
Lactation
1 to 5 years after childbirth
latent Development
activates by hormonal control
Gonades
primary sex organs testes/ovaries
Secondary sex organs males
epididymies
ductus deferentia
ejaculatory ducts
urethra
accessory glands males
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bubourethral glands
copulatory organ
penis
secondary sex organs females
essential...
vagina
uterine tubes
uterus
mammary glands
baby passes through here during delivery
vagina
fallopian tubes
allows for the egg to be transported through after ovulation on its way to the uterus. It is also the site of fertilization
Uterus
womb. site of implantation and gestation. Muscular walls active in parturition
General secondary sex characteristics
none essential for reproduction. attractant features
seminiferous tubule
testes:produce spermaozoa
interstitial cells
testes:produce and secrete male sex hormones
Epididymides
area for storage and maturation of sperm. send them to ductus deferentia
Ejaculatory ducts
receive sperm and additives from seminal vesicles and prostate gland to produce seminal fluid
seminal vesicles
secrete alkaline fluid containing nutrients and prostaglandins
prostate gland
secvretes alkaline fluid that helps neutralize acidic seminal fluid and enhances the motility of sperm
bulbourehral glands
secrete fluid that lubricates urethra and the end of the penis
allows testes to maintain lower temp for efficent production of sperm
scrotum
conveys urine and seminal fluid and is the organ of copulation
penis
produce ova and female sex hormones
ovaries
uterus
protects and sustains life of the embryo and fetus during pregnancy
vagina
conveys uterine secretionsn to outside of body
menstruation
end of a process preparing the uterus for implantation
labia majora
encloses and protects and other external reproductive organs
labia minora
forms the margins of the vestibule and protects the openings of the vagina and urethra
rich supply of blood and sensory nerve endings
clitoris
vestibule
the cleft between the labia minor that includes the vaginal and urethral openings
vestibular glands
secrete fluid that moistens and lubricates the vestibule and vaginal opening during intercourse
Body of sperm
contains numerous mitochondria spiraled around a filamentous core, energy for locomotion
acrosome
tip of head, contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate ovum
Seminiferous tubules
functional units of testis, where spermatogenesis, thousands per second
oogenesis
meiotic process by which ova are formed
morphogenesis
formation of human body before birth
pre-embryonic stage
2 weeks
fertilization
transportation of egg through tube
mitotic division
implantation
fertilization
occurs within the uterine tube usually 12-24 hours following ovulation
zygote
fertilized egg
Blastomeres
2 identical daughter cels
Morulla
16 or moe cells
Blastocyst
morula has established 2 groups of cells
ectoderm
forms epidermis and nervous tissue and sense organs; as well as lens of eye and enamel of the teeth, pituitary gland, and the adrenal medulla
mesoderm
forms
muscle
connective tissue
dermis
dentine of teeth
reproductive organs
kidnes and ureters
adrenal cortex
endoderm
epithelium of pharynx
auditory canal
tonsils
thyroid
lungs, digestive tract, liver, pancreas
Turners syndrome
only one x chromosome; individual appears to be female but the gonads are rudimentary or are absent and do not mature at puberty
Klinefelter's synrom
XXY chromosome; develops breasts and male genitalia, steril
Cryptorchidism
hidden testes, 3% of males
(gubernaculum muscle) controls
impotence
inability to maintain erection to ejaculation
infertility
inability to fertilize an ovum
Gonorrhea
"clap" painful urination and discharge pus, females carriers, newborns may be blind
Syphilis
goes and comes if untrated, may cause blindness and insanity if untreated
orchitis
infection of hte testes i.e. mumps
gynecology
medical speciality concerned with the female reproductive system
obstertrics
peciatlity dealing with pregancy and childbirth
ecopic pregnancy
results from implantation of blastocyst in location other than in the body of the uterus (fundus). most frequest in the uterine tube (tubular pregnancy)
amenorrhea
absence of menstration. may or may ot indicate a problem. i.e. no menstation if a woman i pregannt
normal amenorrhea
follows menapause, during preg., and lactation
primary amenorrhea
woman has never menstrated- accompanied by failure of development of 2ndary sexual characteristcs
second. amenorrhea
cesstion of menstration who have had normal periods and are not preg and have not gone thru menapuase. caused by endocrine disturbances, physiological factors, etc. may be brought about by stress, sickness, faigure, poor nutrition
uerine neoplasms
commen prob of he fem reprod tract. most are benign and may show up as cysts, polyps, smooth muscle tumors
uerine cancer
most common malignacy f fem reprod tract. cervix is most comon site. cervical cancer is the 2nd only to breast cancer in freq. of young women. most common with women who have had fre. inercourse with mutiply partners during their teens and onward. can be detected by paps smears and can then be cured.
hysterectomy
surgical removal of the uterus and may be used to treat cervical cancer
oophorectomy
the removal of one or both of the ovaries due to malignat neoplasm being present
dysplasia
fibrocytic disease of the breast. nonmalignent and affects about 50% of women 30-45
carcinoma of the breast
most comon maligancy in women. 1 in 13 women will develop breast cancer of these, 1/ will die. leading cause of death in women 40-50. ment also get breast cancer, but at a 1% rate for women. causes not known. highest incidence is in women over 35 who have family history and who are nulliparous (have no children)
mammography
x ray of mammory glands to confirm breast cancer
masectomy
removal of the breast and perhanps associated tissues
simple masectomy
removal of the entire breast but not the underlying lymph nodes
modified mastectomy
complete removal of the breast, lympahtic drainage, and perhaps the pectoralis majoy muscle
radical mastectomy
modified radical mastectomy, ecept the pectoralis muscle
trimesters
what is used to divide the gestation period into three terms
first trimester
all major body systems are formed, the fetal heart can be detected, external genitalia are developed, and fetus is about width of plam of adult hand
second trimester
epidermal features are formed and vital body systems are functioning- fetus would likely not survive if born- length of adult hand
third trimester
tremendous growth and refinement, the fetus will survive if born prematurely
ectopic pregnancy
when blastocyst implants outside the uterus or at n abnormal site in the uterus- uterine tubes
mutiple preg
1 in 85 pregnancy
2 zygots from 2 sperm fetilizing 2 ova...dizygotic(fraternal)
monozygotic pregnancy
identical twins from one zygote 1/3 of twins
siames twins
incomplete separation during the cleavage process, conjoined twins
Amneocentesis
obtains amniotic fluid to determin maturity of fetus and look for isorders like Gauchers and Downs
regeneration
lost after 16 cell stage
endocrine glands
secretions placed directly into the blood
nervous system
impulses
rapid and brief effects
endocrine system
transports to tissues via blod, slow changes and prolonged effects
hypophysis
pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
anterior lobe and glandular portion of pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
posterior lob and nervous portion
somatotropin
growth hormone; regulates mitotic activity, promotes movements of AA throgh plasma membranes