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30 Cards in this Set

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1. The letter q is always followed by u and together they say /kw/. The u is not considered a vowel here.
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2. The letter c before e, i, or y says /s/ (cent, city, cycle), but followed by any other letter says /k/ (cat, cot, cut).
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3. The letter g before e, i, or y may say /j/ (page, giant, gym), but followed by any other letters says /g/ (gate, go, gust). The letters e and i following g do not always make the g say /j/ (get, girl, give).
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4. Vowels a, e, o, and u usually say their names/long sounds (a, e, o, u) at the end of a syllable (na vy, me, o pen, mu sic). (These are referred to as open syllables.) This rule helps students know how to divide unfamiliar vowel-consonant-vowel words and then pronounce the word correctly. (re port…rather than rep ort)
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5. The letters i and y usually say /i/ (big, gym), but may say i (silent, my, type).
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6. The letter y, not i, is used at the end of an English word (my).
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7. There are five kinds of Silent final e's. (In short words such as me, she, and he, the e says e, but in longer words where a single e appears at the end, the e is silent.)
Silent Final e's should be thought of as "having a job."
Silent e #1: bake gene time/type code cute
(The job of the #1 Silent e is to make the vowel preceding it say its name.)
Silent e #2: love give blue true
(The job of the #2 Silent final e is to prevent us from ending an English word with a v or a u.)
Silent e #3: chance bodice charge allege
(The job of the #3 Silent final e is to soften a c or g.)
Silent e #4: lit tle cas tle bot tle dab ble fid dle
(The job of the #4 Silent final e is to prevent us from having a syllable with no vowel.)
Silent e # 5: are nurse raise bye ewe owe cause
Mrs. Spalding referred to the #5 Silent final e as the "No job e."
Mrs. Sanseri refers to the #5 Silent final e as the "Odd job E" and explains: "Any reason for a silent E not covered by the first four is lumped into this final category.
1. The E keeps a word that is not plural from ending in an 's'
Examples: dense (not dens), purse (not purs), false (not fals)
2. The E adds length to a short main-idea word. Ex.: awe, ewe, rye
3. The E gives a distinction in meaning between homonyms. Ex.: or/ore for/fore
4. The E is left over from Middle English or a foreign language where the final E was once pronounced. (treatise giraffe)"
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8. There are five spellings for the sound /er/. Keep this sentence in mind:
Her nurse first works early.
In that, the spellings are in the descending order of usage in English.
The phonogram or may say /er/ when it follows w (work, worm, worthy). Also keep in mind that ar and or say /er/ at the end of some words (dollar, doctor).
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9. The 1-1-1 Rule: Words of one syllable (hop), having one vowel followed by one consonant, need another final consonant (hop + ped) before adding endings that begin with a vowel. This rule does not apply to words with x since x has two sounds /ks/.
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10. The 2-1-1 Rule:
Words of two syllables (be gin) in which the second syllable (gin) is accented and has one vowel followed by one consonant, need another final consonant (be gin + ning) before adding an ending that begins with a vowel. If the last syllable is not accented (en ter, prof it, bud get) do not double the final consonant before adding the ending.
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11. The Drop-e Rule:
Words ending with a Silent final e (come, hope) are written without the e when adding an ending that begins with a vowel.
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12. After c we use ei (receive). If we say a, we use ei (vein).
In the list of exceptions, we use ei.
Exceptions: Neither foreign sovereign seized counterfeit forfeited leisure. Plus: either weird protein heifer
In all other words, the phonogram ie is used.
(In school we were taught, "I before E, except after C, unless it says A as in neighbor and weigh.")
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13. The phonogram sh is used at the beginning or end of a base word (she, dish), at the end of a syllable (fin ish), but never at the beginning of a syllable after the first one except for the ending ship (wor ship, friend ship).
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14. The phonograms ti, si, and ci are the spellings most frequently used to say /sh/ at the beginning of a second or subsequent syllable in a base word (na tion, ses sion, fa cial).
Most often, consider the root or root word to help you choose the correct /sh/ spelling to use.
Examples: infect to in fec tious / collect to col lec tion / potent to po ten tial
music to mu si cian / space to spa cious / finance to fi nan cial
soci (companion) to so cial / ancien (old) to an cient
cruc (cross) to cru cial / speci (kind) to spe cial
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15. The phonogram si is used to say /sh/ when the syllable before it ends in an s (ses sion) or when the base word has an s where the base word changes (tense, ten sion).
discuss to dis cus sion / compress to com pres sion / admis to ad mis sion
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16. The phonogram si may also say /zh/ as in vi sion, di vi sion, oc ca sion, ex plo sion.
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17. We often double l, f, and s following a single vowel at the end of a one-syllable word (will, off, miss). Sometimes rule 17 applies to two-syllable words like recess.
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18. We often use ay to say a at the end of a base word, never a alone. (bay, day, decay)
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19. Vowels i and o may say long i and long o if followed by two consonants (find, old).
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20. The letter s never follows x. The phonogram x includes an s sound-/ks/.
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21. Dismiss L Rule:
All, written alone, has two l's, but when used as a prefix, only one l is written (al so, al most).
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22. Dismiss L Rule (part 2):
Till and full, written alone, have two l's, but when used as a suffix, only one l is written (un til, beau ti ful).
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23. The phonogram dge may be used only after a single vowel that says its short sound (badge, edge, bridge, lodge, budge).
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24. Change Y to I Rule:
When adding an ending to a word that ends with a consonant and y, use i instead of y unless the ending is ing or might split a phonogram.
city/cit ies beauty/beau ti ful play/player funny/fun ni est
multiply/mul ti ply ing rely/re li able cry/cried deny/denied
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25. The phonogram ck may be used only after a single vowel that says its short sound (back, neck, lick, rock, duck).
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26. Words that are the names or titles of people, places, books, days, or months are capitalized.
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27. Words beginning with the sound z are always spelled with z, never with s.
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28. The phonogram ed has three sounds.
If a base word ends in the sound /d/ or /t/, adding ed makes another syllable that says /ed/ (sid ed, part ed).
If the base word ends in a voiced consonant sound, the ending ed says /d/ (lived). If the base word ends in an unvoiced consonant sound, the ending ed says /t/ (jumped).
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29. Words are usually divided between double consonants.
For speaking and reading, only the consonant in the accented syllable is pronounced; the consonant in the unaccented syllable is silent (lit tle to lit le).
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that I look up interesting words or roots in our two favorite books: Word Stems by John Kennedy, and The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology by Robert K. Barnhart.
-that Romalda Spalding, for sound reasons, entitled her book, The Writing Road to Reading.