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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is not a test for reasoning by cause?

A)are there enough examples
B)do the examples cover the critical period of time
C)are the examples typical
D)are the negative examples non-critical
E)all of the above
E) All of the above
The process of reasoning for specific cases to a generalization:

A)deductive reasoning
B)inductive reasoning
C)syllogism
D)enthyeme
E)none of these
B) inductive reasoning
Which of the following is an example of inductive reasoning?

A) reasoning by example
B) reasoning by sign
C) reasoning by analogy
D) Casual reasoning
E) All of the above
E) All of the above
Which is not one of the four (4) elements of good delivery?

A) direct eye contact
B) effective use of the voice
C) variety
D) effective syllogistic devices
E) effective bodily action
D) effective syllogistic devices
Which of the following is not one of the points of William James' theory of persuasion?

A)Shock the listener
B)Praise the listener
C)Arouse listener curiosity
D)Use variety
E)Show the significance of the proposal
B) Praise the listener
Consists of inferring relationships of correlations between two variables. One argues that the two variables. One argues that the two variables are so iterrelated that the presence or absence of one is an indication of the presence or absence of another. This is a definition of:

A) Reasoning by analogy
B) Reasoning by sign
C) Causal reasoning
D) Reasoning by example
E) The Syllogism
B) Reasoning by sign
A conversational quality occurs in delivery when:

A) a speaker present thoughts rather than words
B) vocalized pauses are used
C) a and b above
D) none of the above
A) a speaker presents thoughts rather than words
Effective bodily action depends upon which of the following?

A) facial expression
B) posture
C) gesture
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
D) all of the above
A test for evidence is source competency
True
Either inductive ore deductive reasoning may be used to establish logical proof
True
Gesture involves movement of individual parts of the body and should be under the speakers conscious control during the speech
False
The use of emotional appeals raise questions of ethics and sohuld generally be avoided
False
The speaker is the most important element in the rhetorical act
False
The prime factor in reducing stage fright is attitude. If the speaker is concerned about his/her image, and concentrates on what the audience is thinking about him/her stage fright should diminish
False
Aristotle's book Rhetoric is the first systematic known treatment of communication
True
William James' theory of persuasion is based on the concept of selective retention - that is, the audience retains that which parallels their previous beliefs - and thus the speaker should not pick a position on a controversy that is contrary to the audience's prior belief
False
The number of examples needed to establish good reasoning by example is at least three
False
Reasoning by cause, example, and sign are all forms of deductive reasoning
False
The audience knowledge of the speaker, gained before the speech, affects the audiences receptiveness of the speaker's arguements
True
To meet the requirements that evidence must be statistically sound, the speaker should use statistics that have been accumulated within the last year
False
The verbalized pause is used to emphasize ideas and to allow mental catch-up by the listener
False
Evidence may consist of either facts or opinions
False
Evidence is defined as the process of inferring conclusions from premises
False
Logical proof consists of evidence and reasoning
True
The components of good delivery are direct eye contact, effective use of the voice, effective bodily action, and humor
False
Although delivery may not bring about attitude change, it enables or enhances audience understanding. Studies show that subjects exposed to good delivery achieve higher test scores than those exposed to poor delievery
True
The province of Pathos is evidence and reasoning
False
With a strong message (all major ideas supported by documented evidence) good delivery produces significantly more desirable attitude change than does poor delivery
True
Delivery enables accidental communication to occur when tone of voice, facial expression, and bodily action are not coordinated with the verbal message
True
Stage fright can be overcome by taking several deep breaths, drink a glass of water, and moving forward with the speech
False
One test of evidence is that the evidence should be the most recent available
True
The character of the speaker, as a mode of proof, depends upon the goodness or quality of the individual
False
The modes of proof are evidence, reasoning, and emotion
False
The components of ethos are competence, integrity, and good will
True
Naturalness is a desirable characteristic of delivery and may differ from speaker to speaker
True
The syllogism and reasoning by analogies an examples of deductive reasoning
False
Since naturalness is essential to good delivery, a wide variety of delivery styles would be acceptable
True
Reasoning by analogy is defined as establishing relationships or correlations between two variables and arguing that the two variables are so interrelated that the presence or absence of one variable indicates the presence or absence of the other variable
False
Every speaker makes a choice concerning the information he/she provides to the audience which establishes ethos
True
William James' theory of persuasion is based on the concept of audience attention
True
The test for determining the validity of evidence that asks, "Is the evidence the most recent available?" Suggest that evidence is over two...
False
Manuscript speaking substantially reduces the quality of delivery and eliminates adaptative delivery
True
The term rhetoric is defined as the faculty of observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion, and then selecting the most appropriate means for a given audience
True
The Ethos that a speaker has with an audience can change rapidly
True
Inductive reasoning requires beginning with a specific instance and reaching a generalization. An example is casual reasoning
True
How closely the speaker's proposals coincide with the audience's beliefs impacts the speakers Ethos
True
The character and personality revealed by the speaker during the presentation is a source of Ethos
True
The speaker who is focused on the audience - that is audience centered - will generally have a conversational quality of delivery
True
Persuaders should avoid recognizing arguments on the other side of the controversy they are dealing with since that my cause the audience to reject the position he/she supports
False
One test of evidence is the question of source reliablity
True
Statistics that appear in printed books and articles meet the test of statistical validity
False