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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speech as Process: 3 Mechanical systems (Describe)
Repiratory (Energy source)
Phonatory System (Sound Source)
Articulatory System (Speech sound source)
--Speech is an "overlaid" function for all
Upper Pulmonary System
Oral & nasal cavaties
Lower Pulmonary System
Bronchial System
Chest Wall System
Pulmonary System
Lung and Airways
Visceral Pleura
Membrane outside the lung
Parietal Pleura
membrane on the inner surface of the thorax
Structures of Lower Respiratory System
Bonchial System
11cm long->2 1/2 cm wide,
closed anteriorly, open posteriorly, 16-20 rings -cartilage, cartilage and smooth muscle line the posterior surface
tissue lining the trachea
Skeletal Support for the Respiratory System
Rib Cage
Vertebral Column
Bronchial System
system of hollow tubes
pri, secon, tertiary divisions
terminal bronchioles-> respiratory bronchioles-> alveolar sacs (round at end)
Rt. is larger ~3 lobes
What does a newborn and old lung look like
Lung Collapse
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
vol/quantity of air that can be inhaled after natural inhalation
IRV range in adults
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Max. amnt. of air that can be exhaled after reg. expirat.
ERV range in adults
Residual Volume
Max. amnt of air remaining in lungs after max. exhalation
--Increases w/age
RV range in adults
Resting Tidal Volume/Tidal Breathing
-Vol. of air exchange during a specific task
-Depends on build, age, gender
-Serves as ref. pt, meas.=CC's
Inspiratory Capacity
Max amnt of air that can be inhaled at the end of reg. expiration
Functional Residual Capacity
Combo of ERV & RV-> FRC=ERV+RV
-avg=2500-3000cc in yng. adults (less outside group)
-vol. of air contained in lungs after normal exhalation
Vital Capacity
Total amnt of air avail. for life & Speech (max inhale to max exhale)
-5000 typical VC in adults
Total Lung Capacity
-total amnt holding VC& RV
TLC CC in male and female
Location of Air Intake
QB: Nose
SB: Mouth
Time ratios for IN/EX
QB: 40% IN.....60% out
SB: 10% IN.....90% out
VOl of air inhaled/cyc. portion of VC utilized
-----Quiet Breathing-----
QB: inhale up to 50%, exhale down to 40% VC~~~~10% VC utilized (50-40=10)
Vol. of air inhaled/cyclr portion of VC utilized
-----Speech Breathing----
SB: inhale up to 60% VC, exhale down to 35-40% VC~~~~~~20-25% VC (60-40/35)
Loud Speech
40% VC used
Child Speech
40% VC used
Muscle activity during Exhalation for QB & SB
QB=inhale is active, exhale Passive
SB=controlled exhalation using abs.
Instrument used to estimate lung volume
What is Parkinson's Disease?
A loss of involuntary/voluntary movement, neurological disorder
Nature of Damage for Parkinson's Disease
Muscle regidity
Speech Characteristics for Parkinson's Disease
Articulation-speech sound distorations (lips, tongue, teeth, not move the way they're suppose to)
Prosody- Flat inflection (intonation)
Laryngeal Control- Reduced vocal intensity (soft voice)
Respiratory Control for Parkinson's Disease
-Compressed chest wall shape
leads to limited VC
-Compromised trachael pressure
-Compromised oral P (in mouth)
Compensatory Strategies for Parkinson's Disease
Max. P. & control egressive air stream ( air out)
--reduce sentence length
--frequent inhalation
--speaking at the beginning of exhalation cycle
~Increased Vocal Intensity
--Strenthen vocal fold closure
--Enhance laryngeal control thru sustained vowel phonation
--Sustained (continuant) consonant phonation /s/
Cerebellar Disease
--Nature of Disease--
Poor coordination of vol. movement
Cerebellar Disease
--Speech Charateristics--
Unpredictable pitch & loudness control

Scanned Speech (robotic)
Cerebellar Diseases
--Respiratory Function--
Tidal Breathing my be jerky
Inspiratory gasps
VC may be below normal
Cerebellar Diseases
--Mangement Strategies--
Begin utterances significantly above REL (want to start so P. is fine & utterances are above)
Spinal Cord Injury
Near Cervical and Thoracic Region
Spinal Cord Injury
--Nature of Problem---
Poor/no enervation to muscles
Spinal Cord Injury
--Speech Characteristics--
Reduced VC
Reduced Vocal Intensity
Impresise consonant productin
Few Syllables per breath
Slow Inspirations
Spinal Cord Injury
--Respiratory Function--
VC may be below normal
Difficulty accessing IRV, ERV
Larger abdominal volumes
Spinal Cord Injury
--Management Strategies--
Encourage larger lung Vol.
Facilitate optimal posture/individually adjusted seating system
Greater Volitial control over speech (muscle strengthening coordination exercises)
Cerebral Palsy
--Nature of Damage--
Lack of O2(at birth), many degrees, hands rigid
Cerebral Palsy
--Speech Characteristics--
-Articulation-distortions (dysarthria) & hyper/hyponasality
-Laryngeal Control
Cerebral Palsy
--Respiratory Function--
Smaller than Normal VC
Muscular Problems lead to coordination problems
P. Loss due to poor valve control
Cerebral Palsy
--Management Strategies--
Postural Support
Abdominal trussing
Inspiratory Checking (someone take in air in sm. increments)
Voice Problems
--Nature of Damage--
Central-neurological->coming from
Peripheral-Vocal fold damage
Voice Problems
--Speech Characteristics--
Varied, according to nature & scope of damage
Voice Problems
--Mangagement strategies--
Clavicular to abdominal breathing
Yawn sign (for vocal fold hyper function)
Larynx Trivia
-Sits atop the 1st trachael ring
-approx. avg. length (male-44mm, Female-36mm)
-Positioned higher in the throat (in infants and primates/early humans)
-Postitioned anterior to C4 thru C6
Larynx Functions
-protection of airway
-locks air into lungs for certain activities
-phonation->act of producing sound
Laryngeal Skeleton
-Joints (Location & Function)-
Cricoarytenoids- Abduction & adduction of vocal folds
Cricothyroids- Lengthen & shorten vocal folds, =regulate pitch
Inspiration-Expiration According to Boyle's Law->
Inverse relationship btwn Vol & P.
Air flows in direction of Lower P ( Inhales )
Thoracic cavity vol. Decreases , lung Vol. Deceases ( exhale )
Muscles of Respiration
Muscle activity depends upon overall activity,
Some muscles participate fully in resp. other facilitate the process
Muscles of Respiration
--Primary Abdominal--
Diaphragm-> most important for respiratory stretch f/1 side of RC to->
"Resting State"-Inverted Bowl
"Active State"- Flattened Bowl (make up floor of thoracic & top of abdominal wall)
Muslces of Respiration
--Primary Thoracic--
Intercostals- muscles btwn ribs
External Intercostal (lips)
--Location-Btwn ribs, bottom of rib
--Function-when EIC, contract, get external elevation of RC-> incr. vol. of thoracic cavity
Muscles of Respiration
--Primary Internal Intercostals--
11 Pairs
Location: come down opposite angle of external
Funcion: Protection barrier for heart & lungs (lattis).
-Rib Cage pulled down
Respiratory System Breakdowns: Problems that may affect speech
-Inadequate air supply-intake problems (vital capacity-limited)
-Inefficent Breath Control
~Limited access to VC due to muscular problems
~Loss of AP due to inadequate valving
P trac

P oral
Ptrac-AP of trachea (level)

Poral-AP at level of oral cavity
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles: Commonalities
-All are involved in affecting glottal opening & varying the length & tension of the folds
-All are paired except Transverse Interarytenoid
-All are adductors, except Posterior Cricoarytenoid
-All are intervated by same branch of vagus (10th) except Cricothyroid
Muscles of Larynx
(strap muscles)
Infrahyoid-Pull larynx down when contract
Suprahyoid-pull larynx up when contract
Muscles of Larynx
Adductors- Close vocal folds
-lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA):paired
-Interarytenoid (IA):unpaired (closes glottis)
-Cricothyroid (CT): Paired (lengthen thin vocal folds)
-Thyroiarytenoid (TA): paired
Muscles of Larynx
Abductors-open vocal folds
-Posterior Cricoarytenoid(PCA):paired
Respiratory Physiology
--Nature of Inspiration--
Active Porcess (always)
Involves muscle contracion (always)
Respiratory Physiolgy
--Nature of Expiration--
Passive process during QB
Involves Muscle relaxation
Active process during forced exhalation
--Involves contra. of abd. musc.
--Air forced out of Resp. system
Resting Expiratory Level/End- Expiratory Level (REL)
Brief inst. alveolar press is = atmos. P

Contraction-relaxation forces hold ea. other
Aryepiglottic Folds (anatomy)
-extend f/sides of epiglottis to apex of ea. arytenoid