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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What 2 functions does the larynx have?
1. Biological valve
2. Sound generator
What kind of sound does vocal fold vibration produce?
a sound that is quasiperiodic and complex
What is the location of the larynx?
at the top of trachea, just below the root of the tongue
what is the skeletal framework of the larynx?
Nine cartilages made of major cartilages and two laryngeal joints
What are the major cartilages of the larynx?
The thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids (2)
What are the two laryngeal joints?
cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid
Name the valves within the larynx?
- aryepiglottic folds
- false vocal folds
- true vocal folds
How can we describe the vocal folds?
- as shelves of tissue with a layered structure
What do the intrinsic laryngeal muscles do?
They are the primary active forces controlling the vocal folds during phonation
What do the extrinsic laryngeal muscles do?
Control the position of the larynx in terms of height
What would elevate the larynx during swallowing?
the extrinsic laryngeal muscles
What are the three mechanical layers of the vocal folds?
1. mucosal cover
2. transition (aka vocal ligament)
3. body (vocalis, lateral thyroarytenoid muscle)
What is another name for the vocal ligament?
transition
What is the body of the vocal folds made up of?
- vocalis muscle
- lateral thyroarytenoid muscle
What is the mucosa made of?
- epithelium
- superficial lamina propria aka Reinke's space
- intermediate lamina propria
- deep lamina propria
Epithelium
a thin, tough capsule; helps maintain vocal fold shape
Superficial lamina propria- what is another name for it? Describe it
aka Reinke's Space. Loose and pliable/primarily elastic fibers
Intermediate lamina propria
less flexible/mostly elastic fibers, but more densely packed than in superficial lamina propria
Deep Lamina Propria
somewhat stiffer than intermediate lamina propria, mostly collagenous fibers
The intermediate and deep layer of the lamina propria form what?
the vocal ligament
vocalis muscle
stiffest layer/striated muscle fibers
epithelium + lamina propria=?
mucosa
What is the lamina propria made of?
Superficial, intermediate, and deep layer
vocalis muscle
stiffest layer/striated muscle fibers
The layers of the vocal folds increase stiffness in a __________ direction
transverse, from epithelium to vocalis
What principal allows aerodynamic energy to be imparted through the different layers of the vocal folds?
impedence matching, because vocal folds are loose around the edge they are more easy to deform and impart energy more easily
___________ motion of the cover is essential to normal phonation
wavelike
What direction do most of the vocal fold tissue fibers run in?
they run anterior to posterior, parallel to vocal fold margins
Laryngeal vascular system
blood vessels are thinnest/run longitudinally in medial portions of vocal folds superficial layers
In what three ways were the vocal folds designed for efficient vibration?
1. progressive density/stiffness of layers (complex mechanical vibrator system)
2. tissue fibers run in anterior to posterior direction parallel to vocal fold margins
3. laryngeal vascular system- blood vessels are thinnest and run longitudinally in medial portions of the vocal fold superficial layers
Posterior Cricoarytenoid muscles
vocal fold abductors
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
vocal fold adductors; increase medial compression of the vocal folds
interarytenoid muscles
vocal fold adductors
cricothyroid muscles
adjust the vocal fold tension, length and stiffness- affect rate of vocal fold vibration and pitch
thyroarytenoid aka vocalis muscle
can contract, resulting in increaseed tension/stiffness of the muscle (influences rate of vf vibration)
What do some of the other intrinsic muscles do to the vocal folds?
open, close, tense, relax them
When was it understood that vocal fold vibration modulated the exhaled airstream and generated sound?
the late 1800's
When did Neurochronaxic Theory and Myoelastic-aerodynamic theory come into being?
in the 1950s
Neurochronaxic Theory
Stated a neuromotor impulse to the vocalis muscle abducted (opened) vocal folds, adduction occured when vocal folds relaxed. Believed this happened for every cycle of vibration (1 neuromotor impulse per cycle)
Why can't neurochronaxic theory be true?
- nerves don't fire fast enough to be the thing that abducts vfs
- muscles would get tired
- the vocalis muscle is not an abductor
- no mention of airsteam in theory
Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory
- vocal folds positioned towards the midline by contraction of adductor muscles
- subglottal pressure builds up underneath closed vfs, eventually overcome their resistence and blow vfs apart
- vfs move back towards original midline position because of their elasticity
- Bernoulli effect "sucks" vfs together as the approach midline approximation
Vertical Phase Difference
- inferior margins subjected to subglottic pressure 1st so vfs open from bottom to top
- because of mechanical linkage superior edges dragged along in direction of inferior edges
- inferior edges close first (inertia/elasticity), mechanically drag upper margins along
Longitudinal Phase Difference
Nonsimultaneous opening and closing of the vfs in the anterior-posterior direction. Open in the posterior to anterior direction, close in the anterior to posterior direction
What is the mucosal wave?
the ripple effect seen along the surface of the vocal folds
What is the mucosal wave due to?
it is related to the vertical phase difference and the tendency of the "cover" to move freely over the "body"
Degree to which layers function separately is influenced by what?
- intrinsic muscles
- extrinsic muscles
- vocal fold health
What adjusts the mechanical properties of the cover and transition?
laryngeal muscles
What adjusts the mechanical properties of the body?
it is controlled by itself
What might laryngeal adjustment change?
- fundamental frequency
- subglottal pressure
- sound pressure level or intensity level of voice
- glottal waveshape, sound wave composition, spectrum (vocal quality)
What does the rate of vocal fold vibration depend on?
length, mass and tension
With a greater length and mass, fundamental frequency would be __________
lower
With greater tension of stiffness of the vocal folds, fundamental frequency would be ____________
higher
Vocal fundamental frequency is determined primarily by the ________________________-
tension of the vocal fold cover
How do we control intensity?
- regulate subglottal pressure by increasing or decreasing medial compression of vfs
- increase the closed time=blown apart and come together more forcefully= stronger excitation of air in vocal tract
Quality of voice is associated with what?
harmonic in the complex signal
fundamental frequency corresponds to percieved __________
pitch
higher fundamental frequency yields ___________ harmonic spacing
wider
quasiperiodic vibration
almost periodic
jitter
frequency perturbation, cycle-to-cycle variations in frequency (or the period in each cycle)
How do you measure jitter?
in msec or %,
What is considered a normal amount of jitter?
less than or equal to 1% is considered normal
What is considered a normal amount of shimmer?
less than .5 dB
Shimmer
amplitude pertubation; cycle-to-cycle variations in amplitude
What are the three vocal registers?
pulse, modal and falsetto
pulse
- very low fundamental frequency
- "glottal fry"
What is the vocal fold vibration like in the pulse register?
tightly closed; lax free borders; long closed time; biphasic closure. Need 2 cm H20 driving pressure.
What do you percieve with pulse register?
- the "temporal gap" and bursts of acoustic energy (below about 70 Hz)
When do we use modal register?
in typical conversation
What characterizes vfs during modal register?
slack cover/stiffer body that is involved in vibration; closed portion of cycle is about 50% of entire cycle
Falsetto
very high fundamental frequency
What is another name for falsetto?
loft voice
What characterizes vfs during falsetto?
long and stiff vfs, thin edge, somewhat bowed. Cover is lax, ligament is tensed. Primarily the edges are involved in vibration, ligament and body don't vibrate as much. Rapid vibration with incomplete closure.
What are the vocal fold parameters we measure?
- maximum frequency range/pitch flexibility
- speaking fundamental frequency/habitual pitch
- maximum phonation time
- max/min intensity at various ff levels
- periodicity of vibration (jitter)
- noise generated by turbulent flow or aperiodic vibration
breathiness
incomplete vf closure, high frequency additive noise
roughness/harshness
turbulence and aperiodic vibration. Lower frequency additive noise.
hoarseness
combination of breathiness and roughness/harshness.