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42 Cards in this Set

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What is linearity?
Principle that asserts that a specific sound in a word corresponds to a specific phoneme.
What is segmentation?
Principle based on the notion that the speech signal can be divided into discrete units that correpsond to specific phonemes
What is Speaker Normalization?
How listeners are able to recognize sounds and words despite the large variations in the way that speakers produce them
What is the basic unit of perception?
-varies by listening situation and age
-infants use larger units, like syllables
-process at smaller levels as lexicon increases
What is the Serial-order Issue?
Issue of which elements of speech are serialized: vocing, nasality, phonemes, syllables, etc.
-phoneme/syllable sized unit favored by current research
What are Degrees of Freedom?
different options of muscle contractions to make different formations within the oral, pharyngeal, or laryngeal cavities
active vs passive theories of speech perception
Active: stress links between speech perception and speech production

Passive: emphasize sensory aspects of speech perception
Bottom-up vs Top-down theories of speech perception
B-U: based on premise that all information necessary for recognizing sounds is contained in acoustic signal--no need to involve cognition in processing sounds

T-D: emphasize higher-level linguistic and cognitive operations in analysis of sounds
Describe Oral Stage of Swallowing
-Chew food
-sense food is in mouth
-labii closed off, nasal airway open for breathing
-hold bolus between tongue and hard palate at back of mouth
-bolus moves posteriorly through central groove of tongue towards pharynx
Describe Pharyngeal stage of Swallowing
-bolus passes point between the anterior faucial arches and where the tongue base crosses the lower rim of the mandible, the pharyngeal swallow should be triggered
-velum elevates and retracts
-hyoid/larynx move up and forward
-epglottis and VFs close
-bolus passed thru cricopharyngeous to pharynx
muscles of the nasopharynx
-palatoglossal
-levator veli palatini
-tensor veli palatini
-palatopharyngeous
-muscularis uvula
Muscles of pharyngeal swallow
-geniohyoid
-mylohyoid
-anterior/posterior digastric
-medial/inferior pharyngeal constrictors
Primary, secondary, and tertiary positions for swallow to trigger
1. entering pharynx

2. level of vallecula

3. level of pyriform sinuses
Technology used to study swallow
-ultrasound
-videoendoscopy
-videofleuroscopy
-scintigraphy
-EMG
-EGG
Classes of Cleft Lip/Palate
I. Soft Palate only
II. Hard/Soft palate, incisive foramen
III. Complete unilateral cleft of alveolar ridge too
IV. Complete bilateral cleft of alveolar ridge too
Genetic/Hereditary disordres associated with Cleft Palate
-Pierre Robin syndrome (Robin sequence)
-Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome -Treacher Collins Syndrome
-Apert Syndrome
Environmental teratogens associated with Cleft Palate
-Dilantin-anti-seizure medication -Thalidomide-sedative -Excessive use of aspirin and retinoids
-excessive alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine
-X-rays
-certain viruses
Members of a cleft palate team
Anesthesiologist, Audiologist, Coordinator, Educator, Endodontist, Geneticist, Genetic counselor, Oral surgeon, Orthodontist, Otolaryngologis, Parents, Pediatrician, Periodontist, Plastic surgeon, Prosthodontist,Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Radiologist, Social worker, SLP
HL problems occuring with Otitis Media
-HL of 20-40dB
-poorer VOT perception
-poorer perception of /s/ vs /sh/
define Specific Language Impairment
A language impairment in the absence of deficits in hearing, intelligence or neurological problems.
Possible causes for SLI
-fragile perceptual abilities (so sound descrimination is taxing)
-generalized processing problem, usuing resources for other tasks
Parkinson's Disease details
-Etiology-Lack of neurotransmitter Dopamine
-Symptoms-Movement disorder, trouble initiating movement
-Speech and language issues-Dysarthria, dysphagia, voice disorders
-Technology-measurement: s/z ratio, Videoflouroscopy, Visipitch, volume meter
-Assessment-respiration, swallow, speech
-Treatment-Lee Silverman voice TX
Dysphagia protocols
ALS details
-Etiology: Neurological degenerative disorder.
-Symptoms-degenerative muscle weakness-may begin in limbs, head, or core
-Speech and language issues-dysarthria, dysphagia, voice
-Technology-Videoflouroscopy, voice protocols, respiration
-Assessment-dysphagia protocols/ s/z ratio for resp, voice assessment
-Treatment-maintain all functions as long as possible, augmentative communication
Huntinton's Chorea details
-Etiology: reduction in neurotransmitter GABA
-Symptoms-sever tremor
-Speech and language issues, dysarthria, dysphagia
-Technology-Visipitch, videostroboscopy
-Assessment-Videoflouroscopy, s/z ratio, voice assessment
-Treatment-Dysphagia protocols, eating management, voice tx, swallow treatment
Cerebral Palsey details
-Etiology-prenatal, paranatal insult to the brain.
-Symptoms-severe hypotonia or hypertonia, possible cognitive issues, gross and fine motor
-Speech and language issues, dysarthria, apraxia, dysphagia, oral motor disorder
-Technology-augmentative communication, Visipitch, Videoflouroscopy
-Assessment-artic, dysarthria, augmentative eval, oral motor assessment, VMPAC
-Treatment-oral motor, augmentative communication training, dysarthria protocols
Down Syndrome details
-Etiology-genetic disorder
-Symptoms-slanted eyes, low set ears, learning impairment,
-Speech and language issues-apraxia of speech, oral motor disorder, language impairment, swallowing issues usually oral stage.
-Technology-Videoflouroscopy
-Assessment-all childhood batteries that are appropriate for cognitive level, oral motor assessment (Beckman), VMPAC
-Treatment-Intense speech, oral motor, sensory integration, speech, language tx, eating consultation
Autism details
-Etiology-some genetic indications -unknown
-Symptoms-variety of symptoms including social emotional impairment, behavioral components,
-Speech and language issues, severely impaired language skills, voice involvement, movement and body in space issues, apraxia, dysarthria, voice disorders
-Technology-augmentative communication, Visipitch, graphic organizers, calendar programs
-Assessment-The Autism Diagnostic Scale among 50 others, VMPAC
Cleft Palate details
-Etiology –some genetic indications
-Symptoms-several configurations
-Speech and language issues-severe articulation, voice, resonance disorders. Language disorders.
-Technology-Prosthesis, measurement devices, feeding equipment, C-PAP (Dr. Kuhn)
-Assessment-Standard children’s speech and language assessments, oral motor evaluation
-Treatment-Surgery, Intense speech and language therapy
Aphasia details
-Etiology-Stroke aka. CVA
-Symptoms-blacking out, speech becomes slurred, numbness, difficulty breathing or swallowing
-Speech and language issues Loss of speech, apraxia, dysarthria, language, feeling in limbs, coordination, reading, math, swallowing problems, voice, memory
-Technology-Videoflouroscopy, videostroboscopy
-Assessment-Minnesota D. T. Aphasia, neuroexam, Boston Diagnostic, Dysphasia, Dysarthria Battery
-Treatment-All speech, language, dysphagia, voice treatments
Target Model of speech production
-goal is acousitc output
-helps acount for coarticulation and talker variability (rate, stress
Feedback Model of speech perception
-auditory output serves as feedback for info ragarding how we move articulators thru proprioceptive, kinesthetic, and tactile manners
Feed Forward Model
-signals make adjustements at periphery to prive for efficient, coordinated system
-faster process than waiting for feedback
-may help explain why disruptions don't really affect speech production
Dynamic systems model
-provide explanation that would reduce degrees of freedom
-proposed that groups of muscles link together to perform tasks
-synergy, coordinated structure formed to achieve goals
Connectivist Model
-nodes which have a presence of absence of a feature to define a target word
Motor theory
-active theory
-individual perceives sound becaus s/he produces it
-listener's experience with producing speech gives awareness of relationship between artic/vocal tract/acoustic consequences
Acoustic invariance theory
-each phoneme has it's own corrosponding set of acoustic features
-"core of characteristics" acts as template that listener compares to incoming sounds
Direct realism model
-speech perception does not rely on specialized and unique processes
-process analagous to vision
-objects/events percieved directly
TRACE Model
-interactive activation: dynamic informaion processing system, extitatory and inhibitory interactions among processing units (phonemes, features, words)
-connectivist model, parallel processing of multiple sources of information
Logogen Theory
-word is detected, logogen activation level raised
-when level raised high enough, logogon threshold of recognition is crossed and word is recognized
Cohort Theory
-Autonomous stage: acoustic-phonetic info at begining of input word in memory have same word-initial information
-> info comprise 'cohort'
-when cohort activated, inappropriate words deactivated
Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception
-3 operations in phoneme indentification
-features evaluated to determine presence in an interval of sound
-features assignes continuous fuzzy values (def. absent -> def. present)
-prototype matching
Native Language Magnet Theory
-phonetic categories of language are organized in terms of prototypes
-perceptual protopytes serve as speech production targets for infants and children, providing link between perception and production