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282 Cards in this Set

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The __________is the largest lobe, making up _____ of the cortex.
Frontal lobe, 1/3 of the cortex,
The frontal lobe is the _________-most portion of the cortex, also known as the _________lobe.
anterior-most portion of cortex, thinking lobe.
Frontal lobe contains __________ area, an important area for speech motor planning.
Broca's area
Broca's area is responsible for _________ language production.
expressive language production
The _______ _______ in the frontal lobe is the site of initiaton of voluntary motor movement (motor output)
motor strip
Motor function is ______ arrayed along the motor strip.
spatially arrayed
The ___lobe is the primary site body(_________) for sensory reception
Parietal lobe, somatic (body) sense reception.
All senses that reach ________, terminate in the parietal lobe.
consciousness
The ______________, is the site of somatic sensation from various body regions
postcentral gyrus
______ ______ is spatially arrayed along the postcentral gyrus.
Sensory function
Mr. Jones had a stroke. You showed him a picture of a hat. He has mild aphasia, saying, " I know what that is, but I can't say the word - I know you put it on your head".

What area of the brain has been affected?
Damage to Broca's area - problem with language retrieval
The _______ lobe is the site of auditory reception
temporal lobe
The Temporal lobe contains __________ _________, an important area for receptive language processing.
Wernicke's area
Wernicke's Area, located in the ________lobe is responsible for ____________ ____________ ________.
temporal lobe, receptive language processing, language decoding
The temporal lobe is the prominant ________ lobe, separated from the ___________ lobe and _______ lobe by the ________ fissure.
temporal lobe, prominant lateral lobe, separated from the parietal and frontal lobes by the lateral fissure.
The _______ lobe, the most posterior lobe, is responsible for receiveing ______ stimulation.
Occipital lobe, most posterior lobe, responsible for receiving visual stimulation.
Occipital Lobe is the site responsible for receiving:
Visual input to the cerebrum.
Insular lobe is revealed by________ ___ ______, where it lies deep in the _________ __________.
Deflecting the Temporal lobe (underneath temporal lobe), lies deep in the lateral sulcus.
Limbic Lobe is located where?
Limbic Lobe - not a distinct region
The Limbic Lobe arises from functional relationships associated with:
emotional behavior, motivation, sex drive, affect
Medial surface of the Cerebral Cortex is known as the __________.
Corpus Collosum
The Corpus Collosum is responsible for what?

Is it typically larger in men or women?
Providing communication between the two hemispheres.

Larger in women.
The hippocampus, a structure involved in ________, is located on the ________surface of the ______ _______.
Memory,
Inferior surface of the Cerebral Cortex
Myelinated Fibers
a) made up of neuron bodies
grey matter
Myelinated Fibers
b) made up of myelinated axon fibers
- form the communication link among the ___________
b) white matter
communication link among the neurons
Myelinated Fibers - White Matter
___ types of fibers - connect the _______of the cerebral cortex
3 types of fibers
Connect the regions of the cerebral cortex
Myelinated Fibers - White Matter

projection fibers -
connect the cortex with distant locations
Myelinated Fibers - White Matter

association fibers-
Connect regions of the same hemisphere
Myelinated Fibers - White Matter

commissural fibers
connect corresponding regions of the two hemispheres
Myelinated Fibers - White Matter

The Corpus Callosum is the major group of _____ _______
Commissural Fibers
Anatomy of the Subcortex

A collection of cell bodies involved in control of movement.
basal ganglia
Anatomy of the Subcortex

Basal Ganglia (Basal Nuclei) structures include the: 1,2.3
1. Caudate Nucleus
2. Putamen
3. Globus Pallidus
Anatomy of the Subcortex

Hippocampal Formation
Located? Function?
Located in the temporal lobe.

Function: memory
Anatomy of the Subcortex
The paired _______ are the final relay for _______ information directed toward the cerebral cortex.
paired thalami

sensory information
Anatomy of the Subcortex
All sensation with the exception of _____, passes through the thalamus.
olfaction (smell)
Anatomy of the Subcortex

Interacts with the globus pallidus to control movement.
Subthalamus
Anatomy of the Subcortex

Hypothalamus
controls bodily functions and desires
Reproductive behavior, physiology, desire for food and water, perception of satiation, control of digestive processes, and metabolic functions are controlled by?
Hypothalamus
Anatomy of the Subcortex
Responsible for metabolic functions including maintenance of water balance & body temperature.
Hypothalamus
Cerebrovascular System
*Although the brain makes up only __% of the body weight, it consumes ___% of the oxygen transported by the vascular system to meet the metabolic requirements of nervous tissue.
2% of body weight
Consumes 20% of oxygen
Cerebrovascular System

Anterior cerebral arteries
Serve the medial surface of the brain
Cerebrovascular System

Middle Cerebral artery
serves the alteral cortex includeing temporal lobe, motor strip, Wernicke's area and much of the parietal lobe.
Cerebrovascular System

The most common site of occlusion, which may result in significant speech & language deficits if the occlusion ivolves the dominant cerebral hemisphere.
Middle Cerebral Artery
Cerebrovascular System
Most people have dominant _____hemisphere, meaning that speech and language are controlled there.
Left hemispere
Cerebrovascular System
_________ arteries - branch to form the ____ & _____ spinal arteries with ________components serving the _____brainstem.
Vertebral arteries -
anterior & posterior
ascending components
serving ventral brainstem
Cerebrovascular System

Circle of Willis
a series of communicating arteries that provides redundant pathways for bloodflow to regions of cerebral cortex, equalizing pressure.
Cerebrovascular System

Venous drainage
The blood supply for the brain that requires a return route for blood that has circulated and exchanged its nutrients.
Cerebrovascular System

A system of blood vessels (veins) which provide the means for carbon-dioxide rich blood to the lungs for reoxygenation.
Veinous Drainage
Cerebrovascular System

Venus drainage is accomplished by means of a series of _______ & deep ________ (sinuses).
superficial & deep cisterns
Blood returns to the general bloodstream by means of the ______veins.
Jugular veins
Cerebrovascular System

Spinal cord drainage is accomplished by means of ________ veins.
Radicular veins
Cerebrovascular System

Obstruction
Critical blockage of the blood supply, caused when a foreign body within the blood vessel (thrombus) creates a blockageto blood flow (thrombosis) or becomes an embolus when released into bloodstream..
Cerebrovascular System

Aneurysm
a ballooning of a blood vessel, rupture of which results in blood being released into that region of the brain.
Cerebellum
Largest component of the hindbrain
Cerebellum - responsible for:
Coordinating motor commands with sensory inputs, communicating with brain stem, cerebrum and spinal cord.
Cerebellum is divided into___lobes, and helps with sense of _____, space in equilibrium
3 lobes
helps with sense of balance
Cerebellum

1. flocculondular lobe
coordinates position in space via vestibular nuclei
Cerebellum

2. anterior lobe
coordinates postural adjustment against gravity.
Cerebellum

3. posterior lobe
mediates fine motor adjustments
Cerebellum

The cerebellum communicates with the rest of the nervous system via the:
superior, middle and inferior cerebral peduncles
Cerebellum
The cerebellar cortex consists of ___ layers - name them.
3 layers
outer molecular layer,
Purkinje layer,
deep granular layer
Cerebellum
The 4 types of cells that are responsible for coordinating input received from the nervous system
Golgi, basket, stellate and Purkinje cells
Cerebellum
Four pairs of nuclei are found in the cerebellum
1. dentate nucleus
2. emboliform nucleus
3. globose nucleus
4. fastigal nucleus
Cerebellum
The dorsal spinocerebellar tract and the cuneocerebellar tract communicate _________ from the upper body to the cerebellum.
procioception (sense of body - muscle soreness), temperature, and touch sense
Cerebellum
The ventral spinocerebellar and rostral spinocerebellar tracts mediate:
ipsilateral (same side sensory reception) proprioceptive information and pain sense from the lower and upper body
Cerebellum
The olivocerebellar tract mediates information received from the:

Big Dog
spinal cord, cerebral cortex and other structures and provides communication between cerebellar hemispheres.
Anatomy of the Brainstem

The brainstem consists of the
medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain
Anatomy of the Brainstem

Evolutionarily order the cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord.
spinal cord, the most primitive part of CNS
brainstem - middle
Cerebral cortex - most evolved
Anatomy of the Brainstem

The brainstem reflects an intermediate stage of organization, between the:
simple reflexive responses seen at the level of the spinal cord and the complex responses generated by the cerebral cortex.
Anatomy of the Brainstem
Cranial nerves and their nuclei arise from the _____ and basic bodily functions for life are ________ _____.
brainstem, basic bodily functions for life maintained there
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
_________The inferior-most segment of the brainstem, sits anterior to spinal cord.
Damage to this area is imminently life-threatening.
Medulla Oblongata (Medulla)
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
pyramidal decussation
the point within the edulla at which fibers of the corticospinal tract cross from one side to the other
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Most of the axons carrying motor commands from the ____ hemisphere cross to the ___ side of the medulla to continue down through the spinal cord on the _____side.
left, cross to the right,

right side of spinal cord
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
At the _____ ____ the fibers divide into lateral and anterior _____ tracts.
pyramidal decussation,
lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts.
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:

Corticospinal tracts in the pyramidal decussation are responsible for:
activation fo skeletal muscles of the extremeties.
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Commands to move the skeletal muscles of the extremities are controlled by the:
Cerebrum
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:

Pons-
Located:
Function:
Located above the medulla.

Serves as bridge between medulla and midbrain.
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:

The site of 4 cranial nerve nuclei and origin of middle and superior cerebellar peduncles.
Pons
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Middle and superior cerebellar peduncles
Location:
Function
in Pons

serve as super-highways for communication with cerebellum
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Midbrain
superior most structure of brainstem
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Which part of the brainstem gives rise to the III & IV cranial nerves & contains the cerebral peduncles leading to & from cerebrum?
Midbrain
Superficial Brainstem Landmarks:
Bottom to Top
1 .Spinal Cord
2. Medulla
3. Pons
4. Midbrain
Deep Structures of the Brainstem
The brainstem can not be visualized from above because, like the spinal cord, it is organized ______.
organized vertically
Deep Structures of the Brainstem
The brainstem is made up ofcolumnar nuclei and tracts that:
serve the periphery spinal cord, cerebral, cerebellar and subcortical structures. (anatomically up and down rather than horizontal)
Deep Structures of the Brainstem
Reticular formation
important mass of nuclei that spans the medulla, pons and midbrain
Deep Structures of the Brainstem A composite of brainstem nuclei, forming the oldest part of the brainstem and representing our first evolutionary effort at complex processing.
Reticular Formation
Deep Structures of the Brainstem
Reticular Formation- an important mass of nuclei, beginning _____the level of the decussation of the pyramids and making up the _______structure of the _________.
begins above the decussation of pyramids, making up central structure of brainstem.
Deep Structures of the Brainstem
The Reticular Formation is _______ important for _____function, as it contains nuclei associated with ____& maintenance of _____.
extraordinarily important for life function

contains nuclei associated with respiration and maintenance of blood pressure
Cranial Nerve Classification
Cranial nerves are referred to by ___ , ___ or _____.
There are _____ cranial nerves
referred to by name, number or both

12
Cranial Nerve Classification
______ are used to label cranial nerrves and the number represents:
Roman numerals

Inverse height in the brainstem
Cranial Nerve Classification

Midbrain - Cranial Nerves # _ - _
I-IV
Cranial Nerve Classification

Pons - Cranial Nerves # _ - _
V - VIII
Cranial Nerve Classification

Medulla - Cranial Nerves # _ - _
IX through XII
Cranial Nerve Classification
Unlike _____ nerves, cranial nerves are differentiated based up on __ defining categories.
Unlike spinal nerves,
cranial nerves - differentiated based on 7 defining categories
Cranial Nerve Classification
Functional divisions for classification of Cranial Nerves
General / Special
Somatic /Visceral area of service
Nerves- Efferent / Afferent/ Both
Cranial Nerve Classification

GSA - General Somatic Afferent Nerves -
sensory nerves involved in communicating the sensory info . from skin, muscles and joints, including pain and temperature
Cranial Nerve Classification

SSA - Special Somatic Afferent Nerves
serve special body senses such as vision and hearing
Cranial Nerve Classification

GVA - General Visceral Afferent Nerves
transmit sensory informaiton from receptors in visceral structures such as the digestive tract
Cranial Nerve Classification

SVA - Special Visceral Afferent Nerves
provide information from the special visceral senses of taste and smell
Cranial Nerve Classification

GVE- General Visceral Efferent Nerves
autonomic fibers serving viscera and glands
Cranial Nerve Classification

GSE- General Somatic Efferent Nerves
Provide innervations of skeletal muscle and are important for speech production.
Cranial Nerve Classification

SVE - Special Visceral Efferent Nerves
involved with innervation of the larynx, pharynx, soft palate, face, and muscles of mastication
Specific Cranial Nerves

I
Olfactory - sense of smell
Specific Cranial Nerves

II
Optic - communicates visual information to the brain
Specific Cranial Nerves

III
Oculomotor -
provide innerations for eyes
Specific Cranial Nerves

IV
Trochlear - provide innervations for eye movements
Specific Cranial Nerves

V
Trigeminal- innervates muscles of mastication and the tensor veli palatini & communicates sensation from the face, mouth, teeth, mucosal lining and tongue.
Specific Cranial Nerves

VI
Abducens - provide innervations for eye movements
Specific Cranial Nerves

VII
Facial - innervates muscles of facial expression and the sensory component serves taste of the anterior two-thirds of tongue
Specific Cranial Nerves

VIII
Vestibulocochlear - mediates auditory and vestibular sensation
Specific Cranial Nerves

IX
Glossopharyngeal - serves the posterior tongue taste receptors as well as somatic sense from the tongue, fauces, pharynx, and Eustachian tube. The stylopharyngeus and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles receive motor innervations via this nerve.
Specific Cranial Nerves

X
Vagus- somatic sensation of pain, touch and temperature fromt eh region of the ear drum, pain sense from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and other regions; motor innervation for the intrinsic muscles of the larynx
Specific Cranial Nerves

XI
Accessory - Innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, and collaborates with the Vagus nerve in activation of palatal, laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles.
Specific Cranial Nerves

XII
Hypoglossal - innervates the muscles of the tongue with the exception of the palatoglossus
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is/is not the same as the vertebral column.
Spinal cord is made up of :
Vertebral column made up of :
is not same as vertebral column

Long mass of neurons

Bone
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

The spinal cord is the:
the information lifeline to and from the periphery of the body.

the link between the brain and body
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is composed of:
aggregation fo many single nerve fibers formed into bundles of fibers (called tracts) with functional unity.
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The tracts (bundles of fibers) in the spinal cord provide _______ between the ___ & ___, and each bundle has ______properties.
provide communication between the brain and body

bundles have unique properties
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
The spinal cord can be viewed:
in it's length (vertical anatomy) and in cross-section (transverse anatomy) -like rings on a tree
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a ____ ____ of ____, consisting of _______.
longitudinal mass of columns,
consisting of neurons
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord

Gray portions of the spinal cord are:
cell bodies within the spinal cord
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord

White portions of spinal cord are:
myelinated fibers of tracts that communicate information to and from the brain
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
Spinal cord begins at the ___, and courses about ___cm through the ____ ____, of the vertebral column. The spinal cord is present down tho the level of the ____ ____ vertebrae.
begins at the foramen magnum of skull
courses 46 cm
through vertebral canal of vertebral column
to 1st lumbar vertebrae
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
Spinal cord is wrapped in ___ ___.
Attached to vertebral column laterally by __ __& firmly attached to coccyx by _____ _______.
wrapped in meningeal linings, attached laterally to vertebral column by denticulate ligaments coccygeal ligament.
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
____ pairs of spinal nerves (# unpaired)
arise at ______ intervals on spinal cord
31 pairs

regular intervals
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
Spinal nerves are referred to in same manner as:
vertebrae

Cervical, C_
ThoracicT_, Lumbar, L_
Sacral S_, Coccygeal
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
There are _ pairs of cervical spinal nerves, __ pairs of thoracic nerves,
_ pairs of lumbar nerves, _ pairs of saccral nerves, _ pairs of coccygeal nerves
8 pair Cervical Spinal NervesC1 - C8
12 pair Thoracic Nerves - T1-T12
5 pair - Lumbar L1-L5
5 pair - Saccral - S1-S5
1 pair Coccygeal nerves
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
During embryonic development, the spinal cord is __ ___ ____, but as braind and body develop, the spinal cord moves ___ in the canal, so adult spinal nerves course ____ before exiting __ ___
the same length as VC
up in canal
adult course down before exiting vertebral column
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
Spinal nerves have both sensory ___and motor ___components.
Sensory function is generally related to___ ___- upper nerves serve ____ ___& so forth,
sensory - afferent
motor - efferent

segment level - upper nerves serve upper body, etc..
Vertical Anatomy of Spinal Cord
plexus
network of nerves that physically communicate with other nerves
Transverse Anatomy
The simplest stimulus-response system of the nervous system - the most basic means the nervous system has of responding to its environment
Reflex Arc
Transverse Anatomy
Reflex arc works by:
permitting rapid movements without participation of higher neural systems
Transverse Anatomy
Because reflexes are executed at level of the spinal cord, they permit: very ____ but _____responses to stimuli - consequently most reflexes serve ____ functions (examples)
very fast, but indiscriminate responses,
protective function
blink, cough, sneeze, etc...
Transverse Anatomy
Upper Motor Neurons (UMN's)
part of the CNS - efferent (motor) fibers descending from upper brain levels (axons pass through midbrain, brain stem, spinal cord to synapse with cell bodies of lower motor neurons)
Transverse Anatomy
Upper Motor Neurons (UMN's)
bring commands from upper brain levels that:
activate or inhibit muscle function by synapsing with LMN's (lower motor neurons).
Transverse Anatomy
Lower Motor Neurons (LMN's)
consist of dendrites and soma within the spinal cord as well as axon components that communicate with muscle fiber; part of PNS.
Transverse Anatomy

Specialized junctions where Lower Motor Neurons communicate with muscle fibers:
Motor Endplates
Pathways of the Spinal Cord

Neurons are referred to as ___-order, ___-order, etc.. to indicate:
first-order, second-order, etc.. to indicate their number in the chain
Pathways of the Spinal Cord
The afferent neuron in a chain will be the _____ neuron, and the next neuron following synapse will be the ______., up to the ____ point in neural chain.
first-order neuron,
second-order neuron
terminal point
Pathways of the Spinal Cord
Efferent tracts, such as the corticospinal tract, transmit information:
Efferent transmit from brain down to spinal nerves
Pathways of the Spinal Cord
Afferent tracts, such as the spinothalamic tract, transmit information concerning_____ to ______.
Afferent tracts - information concerning physical state of lower limbs up to higher brain centers.
Pathways of the Spinal Cord
The corticospinal tract runs from the: ___ to ___ and innervates _____ ____
runs from the cortex to the spine and innervates skeletal muscle
Pathways of the Spinal Cord
The corticobulbular tract,although not a tract of the ____ cord is very important for speech - innervates many muscles of the ____, ___, ____, and ___, and serves ___ ___ nerves for speech.
not tract of spinal cord,
innervates muscles of face, neck, pharynx, and larynx - serves motor cranial nerves for speech
Neuron Function
synapse -
union of open space between two neurons where communication occurs between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another
Neuron Function
synaptic cleft
tiny space between an axon and dendrite
Neuron Function
Transmission of nerve impulses across synaptic cleft is a ____process involving:
chemical process involving
ion exchange, sodium and potassium.
Neuron Function
Briefly explain Transmission of nerve impulses:
Neurotransmitter substance is released by axon and drifts across synaptic cleft where it excites the dendrite of a second neuron. The dendrite's excitationcauses change in its electric charge, causing the second neruon to fire, sending signal down its axon to excite dendrites of another neuron.
Neuron Function
Neurotransmitters can cause either :
excitation or inhibition of neurons.
Neuron Function
Occurs when a single neuron takes input from thousands of other neurons to produce a single response. Mass of information is distilled into a single response.
convergence
Neuron Function
Occurs when a single neuron makes synapse with thousands of other neurons: single piece of information transmitted to many other neurons
Divergence
Neuron Function
Myelinated fibers conduct nerual impulses more rapidly than demylelinated fibers primarily because of:
salutatory conduction - jumping
Muscle Function
point where nerve and muscle communicate
neuromuscular junction -
Muscle Function
The basic unit of skeletal muscle control, consisting of the motor neuron, its axon and the muscle fibers it innervates
motor unit
Muscle Function
Two basic types of fibers - description
1. slow twitch fibers - longer response time, remain contracted 5 times longer, involved in maintenance of posture
2. fast twitch fibers - shorter, faster movement, involved in fine & rapid motor function - tongue-tip movement
Muscle Function
Muscle spindles provide feedback to the neuromotor system about muscle length, tension, motion and position.
muscle length, tension, motion and position.
Higher Functioning
lively debate concerning ____ __ ____ has been going on for well over 100 years. Briefly describe localizationists, equipotentiality, regional equipotentiality.
localization of function within the brain,
localization - speech cont. happens only in specific local areas
equipotentiality - any function can be controlled by any area of brain
regional equipotentiality - regions of control
Regions of brain functioning
Regions of primary activity
primary sensory and motor regions including primary reception are for somatic sense, primary motor area, primary auditory cortex, primary region of visual reception.
Regions of brain functioning
Higher area orders of processing -
responsible for extracting features of the stimulus - located adjacent to primary regions
Regions of brain functioning
Association Areas
regions of highest cognitive processing where sensory information is integrated with memory
Regions of brain functioning
Briefly describe how sensory information moves through the regions:
Information is received from our senses at primary reception areas and we extract it and put it together with other information associated with the modality at higher-order areas of processing. This information is passed to association areas for the highest level of cognitive processing.
Motor System Lesions
Damage to specific regions of the brain was used to infer:
the area of the brain responsible for various functions of the brain.
Motor System Lesions:
Dysarthria - ____ disorder
characterized by:
Caused by damage to :
Resulting in damage to:
speech disorder - characterized by muscular weakness & reduction of motor control
motor strip -
Resulting in muscular weakness, lack of motor function on side of body opposite lesion.
Motor System Lesions:

Flaccid Dysarthria
characterized by flaccid paralysis - manifested as muscular weakness and hypotonia (lack of muscle tone)- caused by damage to Lower motor neurons- generally reflects damage to cranial nerves serving speech muscles
Motor System Lesions:

Spastic Dysarthria
characterized by spastic paralysis banifested as hyperrefleia - hair trigger reflexes - and hypertonia (too much muscle tone) caused by damage to upper motor neurons.
Motor System Lesions:

Ataxic Dysarthria -
characterized by loss of coordination, deficits in achieving an articulatory target and problems in coordinating rate, range and force of movement, caused by damage to cerebellum or brainstem vestibular nuclei or both.
Motor System Lesions:

Hyperkinetic Dysarthria -
characterized by extraneous involuntary movement of speech musculature in addition to movement produced voluntarily; articulators move with out voluntary muscular contraction and this is overlaid on the speech act; caused by damage to the extrapyramidal system.
Motor System Lesions:

Hypokinetic Dysarthria -
Characterized by paucity of movement (lack of movement) most often caused by Parkinson's disease - caused by damage to cells responsible for the production of dopamine, shortage of dopamine results in inhibited initiation of motor function, reduction of range of movement, rigidity, hand tremor
Motor System Lesions:

Mixed Dysarthrias
result from damage to more than one of the controlling systems
Motor System Lesions:

Apraxia
speech deficit of motor planning existing with no muscular weakness or paralysis. Caused by damage to parietal lobe and Broca's area.
Aphasia
language disorder
Motor System Lesions:
Apraxia -
like limb apraxia - can occur anywhere in body - limb has jerky movement
Hemispheric Specialization

Left Cerebral Hemisphere governs:
language, speech, detailed information and sequential processing, reading book, left to right, logic - 98% population
Hemispheric Specialization

Right cerebral hemisphere governs
Spatial, tonal information and holistic processing (viewing picture)
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to Wernicke's Area in the dominant hemisphere:
result in receptive language deficit with relatively intact language fluency - aphasia - language comprehension problem - talks fine, can't understand
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere:
result in expressive language deficit - apraxia, trouble talking, expressing self, comprehension fine.
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to Arcuate Fasciculus - connecting Broca & Wernicke's areas:
results in conduction aphasia - characterized by inablity to repeat utterances heard adn by phoneme substitutions (literal paraphasias)
*Say what I say..".the dog is chasing the cat" , they say " the dog ate the bat"
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to Broca's area, Wernicke's area & arcuate fasciculus
results in global deficits - comprehension, expression, repetition
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to right hemisphere:
often results in deficits in pragmatics (socially appropriate) misinformation of information carried in speech intonation, loss of communication nuance.(very literal)
Hemispheric Specialization:

Lesions to frontal lobe
often result in impaired judgement and failure to inhibit responses
Hemispheric Specialization

Lesions to Hippocampus
results in deficits in short term memory
Right Hemisphere characterized by:
holistic perception - whole picture
higher math, geometry, calculus, person's face, governs certain aspects of music, melody - visio-spatial intelligence - sense of direction
Left Hemisphere characterized by:
sequential perception, left to right, reading a page, governs lower math skills, some aspects of music, in most people 98% governs Speech & Language, speech - motor act
In 100% of right handed people speech and language are governed by
the left hemisphere
In 60% of left handed people speech and language are governed by,

1 1/2 -2% population S&L governed by:
remaining multi-lingual fractional percentage may control S&L in :
the left hemisphere

right hemisphere

both hemispheres
Children with damaged hemisphere of brain that must be removed can usually compensate by -
some functions of S&H being taken over by right hemisphere - but not perfect functioning.
Mediates themral sense, cheek
V Trigeminal
Mediates sense of smell
I Olfactory
Mediates sense of pain for teeth
V Trigeminal
Innervates genioglossus & geniohyoid as well as transverse, vertical, inferior longitudinal and superior longitudinal lingual muscles
XII Hypoglosal
Innervates masseter, temporalis, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
V Trigeminal
Innervates superior constrictor muscles
IX Glossopharyngeal
Mediates taste, anterior 2/3 of tongue
VII facial
Mediates taste in posterior 1/3 of tongue
IX Glossopharyngeal
Mediates sense of hearing
VIII Vestibulocochlear
Approximately how many neurons are in the humand body
100,000,000,000
The structure that is responsible for coordination
Cerebellum
A funcitonal dichotomy of the nervous system would include the subcategories of
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
A structural dichotomy of the nervous system would include the subcategories of
central and peripheral nervous systems
Involuntary visceral functions are governed by the
autonomic nervous system
Protective reactive responses such as goosebumps, sweating and pupil dilation are triggered by
sympathetic nervous ssytem
The type of cell that provides nutrients as well as a filter function is the
glia
The type of cell that is the functional building block o the nervous system is the
neuron
The typical site for reception of excitatory stimulation on a neuron is the
dendrite
Wich substance provides insulation for the axon, as well as a means of increasing rate of conduction of neural impulses?
Myelin
Also referred to as prosencephalon
forebrain
Also referred to as mesencephalon
midbrain
Also referred to as Rhombencephalon
Hindbrain
Landmarks of Cerebrum
# of Cerebral Hemispheres
2
Landmarks of Cerebrum
Separates L&R hemispheres. Within this landmark reside anterior ____ artery and its collatorals.
Cerebral Longitudinal Fissure
w/in fissure - anterior cerebral artery
Landmarks of Cerebrum
Surface of brain is ____, because early in development as brain ____ outstrips ____, the cerebral cortex ____ on itself. Result is greater ___, more neural horsepower.
convoluted, brain grown outstrips skull growth, brain doubles on itself, greater surface area, more neural horsepower.
Landmarks of Cerebrum

The convolutions (mountains)
Gyri (sing. Gyrus)
Landmarks of Cerebrum

_____, (_____) involding valleys, separate convolutions
Sulci (Sing. Sulcus)
Landmarks of Cerebrum

Deeper grooves, valleys
Fissure
Landmarks of Cerebrum
Number of Cerebral Lobes, Name them:
6 Cerebral Lobes
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Tempural, Insular, Limbic
Landmarks of Cerebrum
_____ _____, (_____ _____) divides temporal love from frontal and anterior parietal lobes
Sylvian Fissure (Lateral Sulcus)
Landmarks of Cerebrum

_____ ______ (___ ___) separates frontal & parietal lobes entirely.
Rolandic fissure - (central sulcus)
Cerebrum Layers
Outer surface (bark), between _ &_mm thick, consists of __ cell layers.
Cerebral Cortex
2-4mm thick, 6 cell layers
Cerebrum Layers
Layers consist of 2 main cell types:
1. ___ large pyramid-shaped cells involved in motor function
2. smaller, star shaped, sensory & intercommunication cells
Pyramidial

Non-pyramidial
Cerebrum Layers
Layers varying __ based on function ___ connect local regions ___ cells connect distal region.
varying densities based on function
Non-pyramidial cells - connect local regions

Pyramidial cells
Circulation of CSF
CSF - 125 mL, replenished every 7 hours, constant pressure changes with body position, life-threatening condition if pathway is blocked, circulation of CSF begins in R&L lateral ventricle then subarachnoid space, then around brain & spinal cord, then eventually absorbed by veinous system
Spinal Meningial Linings
protect the spinal cord from movement/trauma
CSF is bathed in ___ which provides;
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides cushion, nutrients, & waste removal
Spaces in brain where CSF flows
Ventricles
System of ventricles consists of ___ cavities. List:
System of Ventricles - 4 cavities
1. Right lateral ventricle
2. Left Lateral Ventricle
3. 3rd Ventricle
4. 4th Ventricle
Within each ventricle is a ___ ___ an aggregate of tissue, which produces ___. Plexus of ____ produces most ___.
Choroid Plexus, produces CSF
Plexuses of Lateral Ventricles produces most CSF.
Menengial Linings
1. Dura Mater
- Epidural space
most superficial meningial lining, bi-layered , tough lining
----
Space between 2 layers
Menengial Linings
2. Arachnoid mater -
spider-like structure which CSF flows through
Menengial Linings
3. Pia Mater
Thin membraneous covers contours of brain, contains arteries, & blood vessesls
Anatomy of Cerebrum
Menengial Linings, __ layers
1 -3 list
support brain, maintain in fluid suspension, 3 layers
1. dura mater
2. arachnoid mater
3. pia mater
Anatomy of Cerebrum
Dura Mater
for brain protection takes on 4 major infoldings providing some isolation.

Divides brain sagitally and transversely
Anatomy of Cerebrum
Cerebrum
(brain) most hightly evolved & organized structure of human body.
- largest structure of nervous system 3lbs.
- billions of neurons
- 2 hemispheres - left & right
-wrapped by 3 menengial linings to protect & support brain
Functional Differences between Neurons

Interneurons
Largest class of neurons, never exit CNS
Functional Differences between Neurons

Motor Neurons
bipolar - efferent neurons - descending tract, activate muscular & glandular response
Morphology of Glial Cells
Types of Glial Cells and Function

Astrocyte
glial cell, separates neurons from each other, supplies nutrients to neurons, adheres to capillaries
Morphology of Glial Cells
Types of Glial Cells and Function
Astrocyte provides important ___ ___ ___ which does what?
blood brain barrier, keeps some toxins from reaching brain.
Morphology of Glial Cells
Types of Glial Cells and Function

Oligodendrocytes
braind and spinal cord Myelin for CNS
Morphology of Glial Cells
Types of Glial Cells and Function

Schwann Cells
PNS Myelin
Morphology of Glial Cells
Types of Glial Cells and Function

Microglia
perform house keeping process - known as phagocytosis
4 Types of Glial Cells:
1-4
1. Astrocytes
2. Oligodendrocytes
3. Schwann cells
4. Microglial Cells
Morphology of Glial Cells
____ ____ make up majority of brain. They provide energy & support to ____, but are not ______, themselves.
Glial Cells,
Neurons,
not neurons themselves
Morphology of Glial Cells
Sensory neurons are generally monopolar with excpetion of
smell, hearing, vestibular (sense of balance) - these are bipolar
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Monopolar Neuron (Unipolar)
single, bifurcating process from soma (sensory)
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Bipolar Neurons
neuron with 2 processes arising from soma (vestibular)
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Multi-polar Neurons
neurons with more than 2 processes arising from soma.
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
Mitochondria
Organelles in the terminal boutons responsible for energy generation and protein development
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
Grey Matter
groups of cell bodies
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
White Matter
Myelin coated cells- Myeline sheath
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
Synaptic Vessicles -
Location
Contain?
Located at ends of terminal boutons,
Contain Neurotransmitters
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
Neurotransmitters
activate nexxt neuron in chain released into synaptic cleft gap causing next neuron in chain to be activated
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Nodes of Ranvier
the unmylinated areas between the segments of myelin
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Telodedria
Long, thin projections at end of the axon
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

Terminal Boutons
End buttons on telodendria
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
A neuron typically has 1 ___ but may have many _____, known as the __ __.
1 axon, many dendrites, dendritic tree
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons
The junction between the axon and the soma
axon hillock
Morphological Differences B/T Neurons

myeline sheath
white fatty wrapping covers axons, speeds up nerual conduction

destroyed by MS, ALS
Neurons

Neurons respond to stimulation, response is mechanism to send:
information through the nervous system
Neuron can have 1 of 2 reactions
1. Excitation
2. Inhibition
1. increase in neuron's activity - active output

2. reduction in neurons activity - cessation of stimulation
Neurons
All structures in the nervous system are made up of _______ (____ _____).
Neurons, nerve cells
Neurons
Neurons are unique ____ tissue, their function is to __ ___.
communicating tissue, function to transmit information
Neurons
The Nervous System is comprised of _ neurons & _ tissue (_ cells.)
communicative neurons & support tissue ( glial cells)
Neurons
Structure of most neurons is:
Soma - cell body
Dendrite - carries info. to cell body
Axon - carries ino. away from cell body
Developmental divisions of the Nervous system:
By the ___ week of ___ development the brain or ___ is composed of 1, 2, 3
4th week of embryonic development
brain/encaphalon is composed of the:
prosencephalon -forebrain
mesencephalon - midbrain
rhombencephelon - hindbrain
Developmental divisions of the Nervous system:
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny -
Earliest structures (brain stem) emerge 1st then more advanced structures (cerebral cortex)
Divisions of the Nervous System
1-3
1. Anatomical Divisions
2. Functional Divisions
3. Developmental Divisions
Anatomical Division of Nervous System
1. CNS - Central Nervous System
2. PNS- Peripheral Nervous System
1. brain, spinal cord - all housed within bone (skull or vertebral column)
2. cranial nerves, spinal nerves, sensory receptors most are outside bone.
Functional Divisions of Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
2 subgroups
Involuntary bodily functions - heart, digestive
2 subgroups -
Sympathetic NS- expends energy
Parasympathetic NS - conserves energy
Functioal Divisions of Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
2 subgroups
Voluntary bodily functions including skeletal (somatic) muscles
Motor component consists of
1. pyramidal system - initiates motor acts
2. Extrapyramidial system - background support
The ___ governs voluntary actions
Cerebrum
The ____ is responsible for coordinating movement
Cerebellum
Proprioception
the sense of muscle and joint position.
Ganglia
groups of cell bodies in the PNS with functional unity
_____sense is the sense of the body in motion
Kinesthetic sense
Special senses include
Olfaction, Vision, Gustation, and Audition
The CNS includes the
Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Subcortical structures, brainstem & spinal cord
The PNS consists of
12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves as well as the sensory receptors
The Autonomic Nervous System
governs involuntary activities of involuntary muscles
The Somatic Nervous System
governs voluntary activities
Information directed toward the brain is termed
Afferent
Information directed away from the brain is termed
Efferent
Action potential
the change in electrical potential that occurs when a cell membrane is stimulated adequately to permit ion exchange between the intra and extracellular spaces.
Nodes of Ranvier
of the axon myelin promote saltatory conduction
Higher ognitive processing occurs generally in
Association Areas