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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
“Any process by which one mind affects another mind”
Who said that Communication was any process by which one mind affects another mind?
Any Sign Process
Any stimulating event that directs the attention of the organism to something other than itself
A major class of signs that has 6 characteristics
Form of energy that is capable of carrying a signal through time and space
1. Soundwaves
2. Lightwaves
Pattern arbitrarily imposed upon the wave motion of energy in a channel
Mechanism/thing that which imposes the signal upon the energy flow sound waves in channel
Device that which reads the signal in the channel and converts into signs which match those transmitted
Thing that selects symbol and symbol sequence to portray desired meaning
Thing that interprets the meaning of the symbols
Sign to Sign Process
Syntactic Level
Symbol to Symbol Relationship
Semantic Level
Symbol user to Symbol user
Relationship between the speaker and the audience
Pragmatic Level
Anything that disrupts process of communication at any of its three levels
Speakers analysis of the audience that takes place prior to the Rhetorical Act
Audiences response to the communication (people say the cannot hear, people look confused)
When the speech alone would take more time to achieve your purpose, always use a visual aid
Principle of Efficiency
Something that must relate to the material of the speech presented for the audience to see. In order that the speaker can communicate with greater clarity, interest, persuasiveness than we would merely by speech alone
Visual Aid
Nothing more than the expression of two different types of ideas or expressions:
1. Speakers own past experiences
2. The experience the speaker go through preparing for any presentation
When tone and bodily action do not match the content
Accidental communication
Logical proof- the use of evidence and reason to convince your hearer to accept your claim. Aristotle proof of persuasion
Emotional proof- appeals to the dominant values of the audience. Aristotle proof of persuasion.
The faculty of discovering in any given case the available means of persuasion by choosing the means that will best persuade a particular audience at a particular time
ethical proof- character of the speaker as perceived by the audience (relying on authority to base their decisions on controversial issues, image proof)
Aristotle proof of persuasion
process of inferring conclusion from primacies
1. Deductive
2. Inductive
something that generates proof in the mind of the audience (ex: stats, personal experience, facts, etc.). All evidence is equal but some is more equal and has broader level of generating proof in mind of audience
Reasoning from specific to general
Inductive reasoning
Reasoning from general to specific
Deductive reasoning
written by Aristotle; the first full systematic treatment of the field of communication
What are Three (3) Components of Ethos?
Competence- how knowledgeable we think the person is on an issue – being prepared; hold in higher esteem people who are competent in subject area of speech (subject based)
2) Integrity- truthfulness, sincerity, not misleading; hold in higher esteem those who are honest and in low esteem those who are dishonest
3)Goodwill- friendliness, having identification with the audience (established in the introduction)
What are Three (3) Sources of Ethos?
1) What is known about the speaker prior to the presentation (Reputation, press, etc.
2) What is learned about the speaker during the speech (character, personality, etc.)
3) How closely their proposals coincide with the audience’s beliefs (do we agree or disagree with speaker)
Discuss fully and completely the concepts of choice, change, and perception as they relate to ethos
Choice: we control our own destiny, we make freewill choices; how prepared, how honest, and what relationships you have- YOUR CHOICE
Change: relates to another perception, not the character, of the person
Perception: the audience’s perception of your character (you don’t have to have good character – you just have to make the audience think you do); many times we see ourselves differently than others do
Why study delivery?
-Although content should be the most important part of your speech, delivery often times overrides the importance of the content (makes a difference but it should not)
-Enables us to handle accidental communication
-Enhances the audience’s understanding
-Its impact on the audience’s attitude change (along with the strength of the message)
-Increases the speaker’s Ethos
Disscuss the effect of delivery on attitude change
Quality and strength effect attitude change- not delivery
Describe and fully explain the nature of good delivery
Naturalistic- don’t be fake or mechanical, nothing forced or out of character (unless it is intentional)
Good conversation quality- having eye contact, desire to communicate, wording at the moment of utterance
Discuss fully each of the four elements of good delivery
1) Direct eye contact- concentrate on your audience, keeps their attention
2) Voice
a) Volume- must be loud enough for everyone to easily hear
b) Rate- how fast you deliver the speech- too slow loses attention, too fast overwhelms your audience
c) Pitch- intonation of the voice (vocal variety)
d) Articulation- including all sounds in the word without over or under emphasizing a sound
e) Pronunciation- appropriate way of pronouncing a word
f) Fluency- speech flowing smoothly, uninterrupted by sounds or repetition
g) Pause- absence of sound (very affective), allows audience to mentally catch up, used for emphasis
3) Bodily Action
a) Posture- keep your weight on the balls of your feet and stand erect; don’t be military or in complete relaxation
b) Movement- can be good (law of change) can be bad (shows a nervous habit)
c) Gesture- movement of individual parts of the body, get away from the podium
d) Facial expression- the only time you have control of it is at the beginning of your speech, otherwise it should be natural
4) Variety
a) Spice of effective communication
b) Variety in volume, rate, and movement
c) Has much to do with preparation
d) Nervousness comes when the speaker focuses on themselves and not on the audience and their content
What is the primary element necessary in establishing good delivery?
The speakers attitude- it must be an audience-centered attitude, don’t concentrate on yourself, make the delivery conversational
Explain fully the premise and the 6 points to William James’ theory of persuasion
“That which controls attention determines action.”
1)Show significance of proposal- What is important to your audience?
2)Shock the audience- It gains their attention
3)Make the use of conflict concerning your proposal- People like conflict
4)Arouse the audience’s attention
5)Make your speech easy to follow
6)Use variety- delivery, support material, etc.