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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something
attitude
what you understand to be true or false
belief
sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new info. conflicts w/ previously organized thought patterns
cognitive dissonance
process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
persuasion
statement w/ which you want your audience to agree
proposition
focuses on whether something is true or false, whether it did or did not happen
proposition of fact
advocates a specific action, changing a policy, procedure, or behavior
proposition of policy
statement that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
proposition of value
need to fully realize one's highest potential
self-actualization
enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
value
attacking a person, involves attacking irrelevant personal characteristics about the person who is proposing an idea rather than attacking the idea itself
ad hominem
compares one thing to another to predict how something will perform
analogy
use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for whihc the expert does no have the appropriate credentials or expertise
appeal to misplace authority
reasoning that suggests that b/c everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct
bandwagon fallacy
faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
causal fallacy
relate two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more the events caused the others
causal reasoning
person possessing charm, talent, magnetism, and other qualities
charismatic
speaker is considered informed, skilled, or knowledgeable about the subject they are talking about
competence
logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems from the major premise and the minor premise
conclusion
audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism
credibility
reasoning from a general statement to reach a specific conclusion
deductive reasoning
speaker who attempts to gain power or control over others by using impassioned emotional pleas and appealing to the prejudices of listeners
demagogue
perception of your credibility your audience forms as you present yourself as a speaker
derived credibility
energy projected through delivery
dynamism
oversimplifying the problem by by arguing that there are only two approaches
either/or fallacy
speaker's credibility
ethos
illustratoins that are used to clarify a fact
example
something that has been directly observed to be true or can be proved to be true
fact
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade w/o adequate evidence or w/ arguments that're irrelevant or inappropriate
fallacy
all encompassing statement
generalization
conclusion reached w/o adequate evidence
hasty generalization
reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probably conclusion
inductive reasoning
conclusion based on available evidence or partial info., evaluation that has not been directly observed
inference
impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech
initial credibility
refers to logic
logos
general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
major premise
specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise, second element of a syllogism
minor premise
shared belief based on the underlying values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people
myth
idea or conclusion that doesn't logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
non sequitur
testimony or quotation that expresses someone's attitudes, beliefs, or values
opinion
appeal to emotion
pathos
irrelevant facts or info used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
red herring
numerical data that summarizes facts or samples
statistic
three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
syllogism
final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes
terminal credibility
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that relfects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest
trustworthiness
speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor
acceptance speech
entertaining speeech, usually delivered in conjunction w/ a mealtime meeting or banquet
after-dinner speech
speech delivered during ceremonies held in memory of some past event and often the person or persons involved
commemorative address
speech delivered at a graduation or commencement ceremony
commencement address
speech of tribute to someone who has died
eulogy
speech that sets the theme and tone for a meeting or conference
keynote address
speech that officially recommends someone as a candidate for an office or position
nomination speech
speech that accompanies the presentation of an award
presentation speech
speech designed to inform the public, to strengthen alliances w/ them, and in some cases to recommend policy
public-relations speech
oral presentation of information policy related to the workplace
report
speech that provides information about another speaker
speech of introduction
brief salute to a momentous occasion
toast