Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/72

Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Case Study
Deliberate study of an individual, organization, group, or a natural phenomenon. The changes that occur are observed and learned about.
Histories
The life history of individual ppl, organ., or nat phenom. May include data and viewpoints- free to include opinions and judgements.
Stories
Promote understanding and learning by standing for something else. Usually contains a moral.
Plot
Organizational structure of a narrative. Includes complication and resolution.
Resolution
The final event or change in the narrative plot.
Setting
The specific location of the narrative.
Complications
The building up of small events or changes and their relations to e/o arouses curiosity.
Characters
Used as a point of personal identification for reader. Not always people.
Essential Narrative Elements
1. Movement through time
2. Change
Bookend Stories
The same story is used in the introduction and conclusion.
Descriptive Definitions
The established and conventional usage of the word. (Mouse- rodent)
Predescriptive Definitions
Created for brand new terms.
(Mouse- computer accessory)
Classification
Knife: Tool, Instrument
Generalizations
Differentation
Knife: Sharp Blade, Used to Cut
Characterisitics
Verbal Examples
Create vivid, easily remembered image of the term.
Sensory Examples
Examples that you can see, hear, touch, smell, or taste.
Secondary Definitions
Define typical sub-categories that make up the whole term.
Ex: Happiness- exhilaration, contentment, joy
Exemplar
An Example such as a model or archetypical example.
Nonexemplar
Example of what the term is NOT.
Physical Properties
1. Places
2. Structures
3. Objects
4. Living Organisms
Parts, Whole, and Their relationship
Focusing on one of the component parts at a time and then moving on to the next.
Ladder of Abstraction
A continium of descriptions of the same thing from the most abstract to the most concrete.
Spatial Categories
Structures, places, and objects in a spatial or geographical organization.
Sensory Categories
1. How it looks
2. How it smells
3. How it sounds
4. How it feels
5. How it tastes
Same class Comparison
The two things seem alike at first glance
Different Class Comparison
The two things initally seem different from e/o.
Types of Comparison speeches
1. To explain complex ideas and processes.
2. To explain common experiences in a new way.
3. To assist audiences in making choices
Organizational patterns for comparison speeches
Divided and alternating patterns
Divided Pattern
Name two things being compared and then list all the features or criteria for one thing and then for the other.
Alternating Pattern
You list the two things being compared under the lists of compatible features
Selection of Items for Comparison
1. The two items must have significant similarities
2. One element must be familiar to audience
3. Must be able to support it
4. Not to intermix diff things
5. Make new and fresh
Lower level supporting claims
Must represent natural divisions of the main points they support
Supporting claims
Main points are subdivided into these
Second level supporting claims
Supporting claims are divided into these
Support materials
Narratives, Descriptions, Explanations, Definitions, Examples, Lists, Quotations, and Specific Facts.
Introduction Transition
1. General Background about the topic such as a history, explanation, definitions.
2. The relevance of the topic for the audience
3. The background of the speaker
Plan of speech
The last section of the Introduction. Announcement of the thesis and main points.
Extemporaneous
Speaker does not write the speech word for word
Memory enhancing variables
1. Motivations to remember information
2. The nature of the information to be remembered
3. The understanding of the meaning and relationship of the information
4. Repetition and rehearsal of the information
Memory enhancing strategies
1. introduce intrinsic and extrinisic awards
2. use vivid language
3. use humor
4. make content meaningful
5. point out/ make associations
6. incorporate repetition
Explanation
Change the nature of the information from meaningless to meaningful
Association
Increases the liklihood of remembering
Extrinsic rewards
rewards come from another person or agen and include material awards such as cupcakes, money, trophies, prizes. Nonmaterial things like prestige, praise, grades, power.
Intrinsic rewards
Come from yourself such as self-satisfaction, increased self esteem, and greater personal independence
Self Evident Claims
Meaning of the words make up the claims, or the form of something.
ex: rectangles have 4 sides
an eye is an eye
Empricial Claims
Depend on the observation of things in this world for their truth
ex: carrots grow underground
Direct observation
Speaker appeals to listener's senses to make a claim acceptable.
Testimony
statement of fact or opinion
Expert opinion
given on subjects for which ther seems to be no right answer
soft evidence
expert opinion because there is no single right answer
hard evidence
statistics and factual data
circumstantial evidence
consists of accompanying or attendant facts, events, or conditions that point to a claim
Argument
speaker expresses an arguent whenever a claim is asserted and other claims are offered as reasons in support of it
premise
a claim that provides a reason for accepting another claim, the conclusion.
Conclusion
a claim that isi implied or follows from the premises
Premise indicators
after all, and, and a matter of fact, because, by contrast
Conclusion indicators
as a result, consequently, hence, it follows that, so therefore
data
informative claims that provide basis for the conclusion
warrant
claim that explains the connection of the data to the conclusion
qualifier
indicates the degree of support for the conclusion
serial argument
abc, cde, efg, ghi
linked argument
abc, def, ghi
conlusion: c,f,i
deductive reasoning
conclusion follow with certainty from its premise
inductive reasoning
provides only probable support for the conclusion
valid
the premise and conclusion are true
invalid
the premise or conclusion are false
sound
agrument is valid
unsound
argument is invalid
causal argument
warrants that assert the existance of a relationship btwn 2 or more events such that one event leads to another
sign arugment
warrants the make connections btwn things
ex: doorbell
arument by inductive generalization
and inference made from a subset of a population, called a sample, to the whole of the population
agrument by analogy
we infer that things frozen yogurt is good to eat bc ice cream is good to eat and they are alike