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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
intrapersonal communication
talking to yourself
impersonal communication
dont know the person you are communicating with (buisness)
Interpersonal communication
friends, close people
Small group communications is considered talking to a maxium of how many people?
Public Speaking consists of how many people?
What is the transactional model?
it is the elementes of communication
What are techniques in reducing speech anxiety?
learn basic skills, use relaxation techniques and be well prepared
What is the basic structure of a speech?
1. tell audience what you are going to tell them
2. Tell them
3. Tell them what you told them
Describe what a good introduction should have.
-Attention grabber, give the audience a reason to listen.
-Preview what you are going to tell them
What are good attention grabbers?
telling a stroy, giving examples, providing a statistic, asking a rhetorical question or using appropriate humor.
What should the body of a speech have?
-It should be organized into 2-3 main points- with appropriate subpoints
-The content of each point should be balanced
- The transitionas that link the main points should be effective
- A mixture of evidence is used to support each point
What should the conclustion of a speech have?
- Tell them what you told them
-Bring it back full circle
-End on a positive note
What is the best options for using notes while giving a speech?
Notecards or Split form- which is half nots half manuscript
What are the basics in using visual aids?
KISS (keep it simple stupid)
Not too much text- just key points
Do not use too many colors of fonts
24 pt font minimum-for powerpoints
integrate it and refer to it
What is the preception process?
an active process involving the selction, organization, and interpretation of sensory data. It helps us make sense of the world.
What is the Halo Effect?
the first impression becomes the impression that prevails. The first impression sticks.
What is Person Perception?
using your own knowledge to predict how others will behave. Ex: all athletes are dumb-stereotypes
What are identity cues?
nonverbal factors that are judged.
What is stereotyping?
a fixed impression about a group of people, over generalization
What is attribution?
you make sense of things based on what you know or think you know about another's personal characteristics
What are the limiting barriers of personal relationships?
-Know it all attitude
- See only what you want to see
-Make cultural assumptions
How can we improve in making personal connections/relationships?
Seek information-describe the observed behavior
Look for other possible interpretations
Seek Clarification
What is self concept?
-the self is the central ingredient in human personality and adjustment (Rogers)
-You looking glass self (Hensely)
-An image of who you are (Devito)
-subjective collection of your attitudes and beliefs (caputo et al)
How is the self developed?
-Conditioning and reinforcement
-Four stages of personality developement (Smith and Williamson) include:
1. personifcation
2. Imitation
3. Role Play
4 Symbolic Rose-playing
How can you work on Self Esteem?
-use of positive self reflection
-vivid imagery (visualization)
-use constructive self-talk to help attack self-destructive beliefs
-Keep a sense of humor
-Be with positive people
-Learn how to be successful with projects
What are the aspects of Informative speaking?
-The goal is to seek mutual understanding
-Focus on an object, person, place, process, event, idea, concept or an issue
-Answer who, what, where, and how
How do you choose a speech topid?
-Generate potential topics via brainstorming and research, and or concept maps
-When deciding on your topic area, keep the audience and occasion in mind- demonstrate respect for audience and establish good rappor, ethics and credibility
What are the different speech patterns?
chronological, causal, spatial, compare/contrast, narrative or topical
What is chronological speech pattern?
main points follow a time sequence
What is a causal speech pattern?
organizes main points to show a cuase and effect relationship
What is a spacial speech pattern?
used to create a mental picture of an object or place based on location or direction (use of space)
What is a compare/contrast speech pattern?
paticularly useful for an unfamiliar concept, event belief or process.
What is a narrative speech pattern?
coveys ideas through the use of a series of stories or a story
What is a topical speech pattern?
Divides a topic into subcategories
Why is an outline important?
it puts your speech into a recognizable pattern, it allows for flexibility to adjust your message, provides opporunity to critique your speech, it can reduce public speaking anxiety, improves your credibility
What are teh different types of outlines?
Prep Outline- a working draft
Formal Outline- final typed draft including transitions and work cited
Speaking Outline- nots in notecard format
What is nonverbal communication?
anything not pertaining to words, it is ongoing, visible often hard to manipulate, it can be interntional or unintentional, it is the primary mode for expressig emotion, it is culturally vased, it is often ambiguous (not very clear), nonverbals are highly believable
What is the keys to nonverbal delivery
use gestures and motivated movement to emphasize and repeat. Gestures should come from teh elbow not the wrist, Gesture and movemtne should be used together, one technique is the diamond walk, all of thsee should not be overused
What is the techniques for eye contact and facial expression?
complement what you are saying and help make it more blievable, work towards 90 percent eye contact, scan entire audience during speech and look them in the eye for 2 seconds
What are the techniques for verbal delivery?
pronunciation and speed, volume and vocal variety. Use stresses and pauses Try to speak slower than you do in normal everyday conversation, speak to the back of the room, uses approporate emotion in your voice.
What is the differences between hearing and listening?
Hearing is a physiclogical process, and listening as a psychological process
What are the different types of listening?
-Informational- to understand
-Empathic- to support
-Dialogic- sculpt mutal meaning
-Critical- examine what you are hearing to see if it makes sense
What are the five traditional canons of public speaking? the (Rhetorica ad Herennium)
-Inventio (Invention)
-Dispositio (Dispostion)
-Elocutio (Elocution)
-Memoria (Memory)
-Pronuntiatio (Delivery)
What is the canon inventio?
Inventio (Invention)- choice of a topid and discovering the ideas and proof.
What is the canon Dispositio?
Dispositio (Dispostion)- a selections of ideas, purpose and occasion, development of theisis and organization of the subject matter
What is the canon Elocutio?
-Elocutio (Elocution)- appropriate style
What is the canon Memoria?
-Memoria (Memory)- the mastery of your speaking material in a sequential order
What is the canon Pronuntiatio?
-Pronuntiatio (Delivery)- use of the voice and body
Stress is brough on by lack of what?
What is the inferiority complex?
most humans at one time or another, believe they're inferior. This "inferiority complex often resultes from the natural desire to be loved and approved.
How can you use your nervousness as a productive speech tool?
It can produce the energizer effect, which occurs when three elements combine during a speech, the speaker is nervous, an audience is present, but the speaker has carefully prepared.
What are the things you should think about when chosing a speech topic?
Your interests, your knowledge, your audience's interests, and your audiences knowledge
What should you use to organize your speech?
An outline, which includes Title, Introduction, Body-which includes the thesis and a conclusion, each with their own subpoints
What should the thesis include?
it is the anchor for you speech and should include a summary of your main points
What is the purpose of the introduction?
to get the attention of your audience andhelp you establish rapport with them
What is the importance of transistions in speeches?
they are connecting links that help you glide from one major idea to another. Internal summaries can be used to link sections of your presentation.
What is the purpose of the conclusion?
it summarizes key points of the talk and ties it together
Good memorization includes three steps, waht are they?
associateion, imagination and repetition
What are the different kinds of speeches?
extemporaneous, manuscript of impromptu.
What is an extemporaneous speech?
You get to pick a topic, and prepare for it in advance. Usually includes the use of an outline.
What is a manuscript speech?
a speech given with a memorized manuscript, or reading from a manuscript
What is an impromptu speech?
less than a minute to collect your thoughts and decide what you are going to say.
Whar are the different categories of speeches?
Demonstration speech, Informative and persuasive.
What is a demonstrative speech?
usually requres propts of other visual aids to demonstrate a technique.
What is an imformative speech?
Bringing new and interesting information to an audience and help them to understand something better than they did before they heard your speech.
What is a persuasive speech?
Persuade other to think they way you do on the issue you are talking about.
What is perception?
an acitivve process by which people assign meaing to experiences.
What is selection or selective attention?
you can process only a certain amount of what is going on around you at a given moment and you must select what you pay attention to
What does organization of information that you percieve and select do?
put the information in a way that will help make sense of the information.
What is interpretation ro interpretation evaluation?
this plays a major part in every interpersonal transaction, your rules, schemata and scripts as well as your gender affect your interpretation which is simply giving meaning.
What is person perception?
the process by which people make such predictions about other people's actions and behaviors.
What are identity cues?
particular styles of clothing or other nonverbal factors that give others a way to judge your identity.
What is attribution?
basing your impression on your perceptual interpretation. basing your judgements off of what you already know.
What are three kinds of errors that can occur in the attribtion process?
Self-serving bias- happens when we take credit for postive attributions and deny negative ones
Over attribution- single out one or two characteristics of a person and attribute everything to them
Overvaluing the contributions of internal factos and undervaluing external factors.
what is allness?
the erroneous belief that someone could possibly know all there is to know about something
what is blindering
failing to remove blinders and look open-mindedly at the entire view
What is a cultural lens?
intercultural communications probles arise from varying perceptual interpretations of both language usuage and nonverbal behaviors.
What is perception checking?
seeking more information about a person so that you dont judge on too little information. The different steps you can do this is 1. describe the behavior you observe, 2. look for possible interpretation and 3. if necessary seek clarification
What is the difference between sympathizing and empathizing?
Sympathize- feeling sorry for someone elses situation
empathize- trying to feel what or how someone else is feeling, or knowing how they are feeling
What is self concept?
a subjective collection of your attitudes and beliefs about yourself, built up over all the years of your life.
What is residual self-concept?
the concept you have of yourself brough on by years of conditioning from significant other people.
what is self monitoring?
the residual self concept can often motivate people to self-monitor, a high self-monitor is someone who can read a situation and project whatever image is requred.
Self-fulfilling prophecy is what?
the notion that how you think about yourself often shpes how you will act in certain situations.
What is nonverbal communication?
a wide range of phenomena, the way you sit, dress, comb your hair, all these things are communicating something about you .
what is nonverbal behavior?
those attributes or actions of humans, other than the use of words themseves, which ahve socially shared meaning, and have potential for feedback from the reciever
what is the communication package?
learning to uderstand and use both verbal and noverbal sings and symbols, your potential as a sybol user starts to be realized.
What are some of the characteristics of nonverbal communication?
1. Nonverbal communication is ongoing
2. Nonverbal communication can be intentional or unitnenional
3. Nonverbal communicatio is the primary mode for expressing emotions.
4. nonverbal communication is ambiguous.
5. Nonverbal communication adumbrates social interaction. adumbrates means to foreshadow or to partially disclose.
6. Nonverbal communication is culture based.
7. nonverbal messages are more believable
What are the primary functions of nonverbal messages?
repeating- telling something in more than one form, using verbal and nonverbal, such as giving directiosn and pointing
Substituting- using a nonverbal in place of a verbal, such as shrugging the shoulders in a response to a question that you dont know
Adding detail or complementing- using nonverbal to complement what you are saying, such as saying I love you and giving a hug at the same time
Accenting- adding detail and emphasis
Contradicting- sending two different messages, one with your verbal and the other with your nonverbal
What is paralinguistics?
means "with language" or "accompanying speech". Not what you say but how you say it.
What is kinesics?
body movements, including eye behavior and are part of your nonverbal repertoire.
What are emblems?
usually gestural equivalents of a word or phrase. ex. come here being replace by the hand movement
What are illustrators?
they are directly linked to speech b/c these actions illustrate what is being said orally and for the most part, are intentional acts. Such as illustrating the size of something
What are regulators?
actions that servet o control oral interactions between two or more people. They can tell the speaker to continue (head nod), repeat, elaborate, hurry up etc.
What are affect displays?
body expression that relfect the emotional state of teh communicator.
What are adaptors?
movements, learned in childhood, that are part of a patterned activity.
what are proxemics?
use of personal and physical space
What is expectancy violations theory?
a theory that suggest that there are times people should break the social normas of personal space.
What is haptics?
touching behavior.
What are the three baic somatypes (bdy shpes) that Sheldon classified men into?
Endomorph- soft, round and fat
mesomorphy- bony, muscular and athletic
Ectomorph- tall, thin and fragile
What is artifactual communication?
includes all those artifacts or elements you add to your body, sucha s earrings, watches, necklaces and eyeglasses.
What are chronemics?
it deals with dimensions of time that influence our communication. How we use our time, organize our day, plan our futre, react to time, our time preferences the way each culture structures time etc.
What are four types of listening used in interpersonal communication?
informational, empathic, critical and dialogic.
What is informational listeinting
Listening for certain information to understand what the speaker is trying to tell you ex. listening in class
What is the difference between active and passive listening?
an acitve listener puts in great effort to understand the infromation being presented to you in the coversation.
Passive listeners may hear the words and understand a few ideas, but little more is happening than the voice vibrations from the speaker entering you mind and getting lost somewhere.
What is pseudo-listeining?
faking attention on the presentor and their information
What is entertainment syndrome?
the concept means that listeniners are looking forward to getting entertained by a speaker, and are disappointed when the speaker doesnt deliever.
What are three helpful methods for remembering?
association, imagination and repetition.
What is association?
linking ideas together, which makes them easier to remember
What is imagination when associated with memory?
with imagination you can vividly rmember the details of something you've already experienced
What is repetition when associated with memory?
repeating something to remember it, or repeating the association and imagination steps over and over again
What is empathic listening?
trying to understand what the other personis saying, and try to feel as they feel.
What is critical listening?
considering the ideas that you are discussing and seeing if they make sense. It can help people figure out the false from the true, or distinguish invlid from valid arguments
What is an inference?
a logical leap from evidence to a conclusion.
What are some ways to better your critcal listening?
Checkin for supportive evidence, musking sure reasoning is cogent, insisting on correct inferences
What is dialogic listening?
two people engaged in dialogic listeningwork to mold their conversations as they carry it on.
What is presentness?
the partners in dialogic listening focus on the here and now as they build their meaning, rather than on the past or future.