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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language
A code system of symbols used to express concepts formed through exposure and experience
Speech
The production of language
Phonology
Thhe scientific study of the sound systems and patterns used to create the sounds and words of a language
Phoneme
The smallest units of sound that affect meaning
Allophones
Variations of phonemes
Phonemic
abstract system of sounds, i.e. /s/
Phonetic
Concrete productions of specfic sounds i.e. [s]
Phonetics
The stydy of speech sounds
Phone
Any sound production by the vocal tract
IPA
International Phonetic alphabet was created in 1988
Syllable
The smallest phonetic unit, composed of the onest, nucleus & code
Consonant
Speech sounds produced by movements of the articulatory muscles. These movements modify the airstream in some manner by interrrupting it, stopping it, or creating a narrow opening through which it must pass. May be voiced or voiceless
Vowels
Produced with an open vocal tract with no points of constriction. They are all voiced. High, mid, low and front or back
Dipthongs
Produced as a slow gliding movement from one vowel to the adjacent vowel
Assimilation
Speech sounds are modified due to the influence of adjacent sounds i.e. great zee - the /z/ is devoiced
Coarticulation
Influence of one phoneme upon another in production or perception. Two different articulators move at the same time to produce two different speech sounds
Suprasegmentals
Featurs of prosody. Adds meaning, variety, and color to running speech through, length, stress, rate, pitch, volume and juncture (vocal punctuation)
Acoustics
The study of the physical properties of sound and how sound is generated and propagated
Sound (physically)
It is the result of vibration or disturbance of air. (Perceptually) The audible vibration or disturbance in the air.
Sound wave
Movements of particles in a medium containing expansion and contractions of molecules
Compression
Vibratory movements of an object increase in density of air molecules because the molecules are compressed or condensed
Rarefaction
The thinning of air molecules when the vibrating object returns to equilibrium
Simple Harmonic Motion
The basic foundation for sound. The movement of the air molecules. The back and forth movement of particles when the movement is symmetrical and periodic. It results in a tone of single frequency that repeats itself
Formants
chamber, the filter not harmonics. Vowels are often described very simply according to the frequencies of the first three formants. High vowels have a higher fundamental frequency than low vowels. F1 varies mostly as a result of tongue height and F2 varies as a result of tongue advancement
Sinusoidal Motion
A wave with one peak/crest and one valley/trough. It contains a single frequency, It is the result of simple harmonic motion
Periodic
Sound waves that repeat themselves at regular intervals
Aperiodic waves
Those that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals
Amplitude
The strength or magnitude of a sound signal, the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound signal
Intensity
The quality of sound that creates the sensation of loudness, perceptually. The amount of energy transmitted per second over an area of one square meter, physically
Decibel
A measure of sound intensity. It equals one tenth of a bel.
Displacement
A change in position, air molecules are said to be displaced because of the vibratoroy action of an object
Force
A vector quality that tends to produce an acceleration of a body in the direction of its application. The product of mass and acceleration
Elasticity
A property that makes it possible for matter (that helps transmit sound) to recover its form and volume when subjected to distortion
Velocity
A change in position. Measured in terms of the distance an object moves per the time and the direction it takes to move. Described as acceleration or deceleration
Frequency
The rate of vibratory motion that is measured in terms of the number of cycles completed per second or in terms of Hertz-cycles per second.
Formant Frequency
The lowest frequency of periodic wave, it is the first harmonic
Fundamental Frequency
The lowest frequency of a periodic wave, it is the first harmonic
Harmonics
In a periodic complex sound, all frequencies can be characterized as a whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency. Thses tones/harmonics, occur over the fundamental frequency.
Octave
Indication of the interval between two frequencies. The ratio is always 1:2 thus, each octave doubles a particular frequency
Impedance
Acoustic, mechanical, or electrical resistence to motion or sound transmission
Newton's Law of Mottion
Explains motion and its characteristics. Sound involves motion. The law of inertia states that all bodies remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion unless another force acts in oppositon. The law of reaction forces states that every force is associated with a reaction force in the opposite direction
Pressure
The amound of force per unit area
Reflection
A sound wave traveling back after hitting an obstacle with no change in the speed of propagation
Complex tone
Created when two or more sounds of differeing frequencies are added. The complex tone is either periodic or aperiodic
Vibratory motion
Has two important characteristics that create distinctly different auditory sensations, frequency and amplitude
Frequency
The measure of the number of cycles per second or Hz. It is one instance of compression and rarefaction. A period is the amound of time needed for a cucle to be completed. The medium that transmits the sound does not affect the frequency of sound but it does affect the speed of sound
Pitch
is a sensory experience related to changes in frequency a physical event. A sound of higher frequency is perceived to have a higher pitch. The normal young adult can resond to 20-20,000 hz
Amplitude
The measure of magnitude (intensity, strength) of sound signal. It is the extent of molecular displacement, the greater the degree of molecular displacement, the highter the amplitude or intensity of sound.
Sound Pressure Level
Intensity of a sound is expressed in terms of decibls at a certain sound pressure level. Sound pressure is the square root of power, which is measure in watts. The pressure itself is measure in pascals