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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Types of Speech Acts
Representatives, Commissives, Directives, Declarations, Expressives, Verdictives
Representatives
Represent a state of affairs.
Can be generally be characterized as true or false.
Commissives
Commit a speaker to a course of action.
Promises, pledges, threats, vows.
Directives
Intended to get the addressee to carry out an action.
Commands, requests, challenges, invitations, entreaties, dares.
Declarations
Bring about the state of affairs they name.
Blessings, hirings, firings...
Expressives
Indicate speaker's psychological state or attitude.
Greetings, apologies, congratulations.
Verdictives
Make assessments or judgments.
Assessing, appraising, condoning
Locution
Grammatical structure and linguistic meaning of an utterance
Illocution
Speakers intention in making an utterance, and intended accomplishment
Perlocution
Effect of the act on the hearer.
Appropriateness Conditions
Conventions that regulate the interpretation under which an utterance serves as a particular speech act, such as a question, promise, or invitation.
Speech Act
An action carried out through language, such as promising, lying, and greeting.
Maxim of Quantity
Speakers are expected to give as much info as is necessary for their interlocutors to understand their utterances, but give no more info than is necessary.
Maxim of Relevance
Speakers organize their utterances in such a way that they are relevant to the ongoing context.
Maxim of Manner
People follow a set of miscellaneous rules. "Be orderly and clear"
Maxim of Quality
"Be truthful". Speakers are expected to say only what they believe to be true and to have evidence for what they say.
Cooperative Principle
Four maxims that describe how language users cooperate in producing and understanding utterances in contest: quantity, quality, relevance, orderliness
Appropriateness Condition
Conventions that regulate the interpretation under which an utterance serves as a particular speech act, such as a question, promise, or invitation.
Propositional content condition
words of the sentence be conventionally associated with the intended speech act and convey the content of the act. Location must exhibit conventionally acceptable words for effecting the particular speech act.
Preparatory Condition
conventionally recognized context in which the speech act is embedded.
Sincerity Condition
speaker must be sincere in uttering the declaration.
Essential Condition
the involved parties all intend the result.
Indirect Speech Act
Utterance whose location (literal meaning) and illocution (intended meaning) are different.
"Can you pass the salt?" Uttered as a request or polite directive.
Characteristics of an Indirect Speech Act
1. Violate at least one Maxim of cooperative principle.
2. Literal meaning differs from its intended meaning.
3. Hearers & readers identify utterance has characteristic 1 & by assuming that the inerlocutor is following the cooperative principle.
4. Hearers & readers identify indirect speech act, they identify its intended meaning through context.
Speech Act
Action carried out through language.
Speech Situation
situation in which members of a community interact linguistically on one or more topics, for a particular purpose, and with awareness of the social relations among the interlocutors.
Turn Taking & Pausing
Participants must tacitly (unspoken) agree on who should speak when.
Turn-taking Signals
Speakers signal that their turn is about to end with verbal & nonverbal cues. Ending of complete sentence, sharply raising or lowering pitch, drawling last syllable of the final word, "or something"
Adjacency Pairs
Set of two consecutive, ordered turns that "go together" in a conversation, such as question/answer sequences and greeting/greeting exchanges.
Structural Characteristics of Adjacency Pairs.
1. Contiguous.
2. Ordered
3. Matched
Repair
takes place in conversation when a participant feels the need to correct themselves or another speaker, to edit a previous utterance, or restate something,