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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
denoatitve meaning
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
connotative meaning
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
A book of synonyms.
concrete words
Words that refer to tangible objects.
abstract words
Words that refer to ideas or concepts.
Discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea.
The use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
A trite or overused expression.
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as," between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
inclusive language
Language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orietntation, or other factors.
generic "he"
The use of "he" to refer to both women and men.
nonverbal communication
communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
manuscript speech
A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience.
impromptu speech
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
extemporaneous speech
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
conversational quality
Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed.
The loudness or softness of the speaker's voice.
The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
A constant pitch or tone of voice.
The speed at which a person speaks.
A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.
vocalized pause
A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh," "er," and "um."
vocal variety
Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch,a nd volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.
The physical production of particular speech sounds.
A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
Motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech.
eye contact
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.
An object, usually built to scale, that represents another object in detail.
A visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns.
line graph
A graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space.
pie graph
A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns.
bar graph
A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items.
A visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form.
A visual aid drawn, written, or printed ona sheet of clear acetate and shown with an overhead projector.
multimedia presentation
A speech that combines several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same talk.
A complete set of type of the same design.
informative speech
A speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding.
Anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form.
A systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.
Anything that happens or is regarded as happening.
A belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like.
The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group.
A statement that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness.
A statement of the similarities amon two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
A statement of the differences among two or more people,events, ideas, etc.
To present one's ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to experience of the audience.
The process of creating reinforcing, or changing people's beliegs or actions.
mental dialogue with the audience
The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech.
target audience
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
question of fact
A question about the truth or falsity of anassertion.
question of value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
speech to gain passive agreement
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy.
speech to gain immediate action
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy.
The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
burden of proof
The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
problem-solution order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
problem-cause-solution order
A method of organzing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies aproblem, the second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem.
comparative advantages order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions.
Monroe's motivated sequence
A method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. The two major factors influencing a speaker's credibility are competence and character.
initial credibility
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
derived crdibility
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
terminal credibility
The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
reasoning from specific instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
hasty generalization
An error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
reasoning from principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
casual reasoning
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
false cause
An error in causal reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follow another, the first event is the cause of the second.
analogical reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
invalid analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
An error in reasoning.
red herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
ad hominem
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
A fallacy that farces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
slippery slope
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.