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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Communication Apprehension (CA).
The fear/dread of negative responses you might experience because you speak out.
What is Public Speaking Anxiety?
Fear specifically related to speaking in public.
What is Process Anxiety?
Fear due to lack of confidence in knowing how to prepare a speech.
What is Performance Anxiety?
Fear of forgetting or of presenting your speech poorly.
What is Communication Competence?
The ability to communicate appropriately and successfully?
What is rhetoric?
The study of persuasion in its various forms, a term often used negatively.
Define culture.
The integrated systems of learned beliefs, values, behaviors, and norms that include visible characteristics of a society.
Define Co-culture.
Subgroups of culture, characterized by mild or profound cultural diferences, that coexist within the larger culture.
Define rhetoric sensitivity.
The ability to adapt to a variety of audieces and settings and to perform appropriately in diverse social situations.
Defing core cultural resources.
Beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden.
Give an example of a nonexpressive culture.
What is bicultural?
Knowing and applying different rules for competent behaviors in two cultures.
Define Dilogical theory.
Theory proposing that face-to-face conversation is the prototype that is foundational to all other communication.
Define speech genres.
Cultural forms that we rely upon when we participae in a specific type of communication.
What is the transactional model of communication?
Model that represents communication as a process in which speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings.
Define canon.
A set of principles, standards, norms, or guidelines.
What are canons of rhetoric?
Principles, standards, romrms, or guidlines for creating and delivering a speech.
What is a canon of invention?
Principles for designing a speech that meets a need of a specific audience.
What is a canon of disposition or arrangement?
Guidelines for organizing a speech (outlines).
What is connectiveness?
Words/ phrases that you use to tie your ideas together.
What is style in rhetoric?
Style means kind/type of language.
What is a canon of style?
Principles for choosing effective language.
What is a canon of memory?
Guidelines to help you remember your ideas.
What is memorized delivery?
Not recomended because risky, learning the speech by heart, then reciting it.
What is manuscript delivery?
Not recomended, reading a speech.
What is impromtu delivery?
Not recommended, avoid spur-of-the moment delivery.
What is extemporaneous delivery?
The recommended way of giving a speech. Preparing a speech carefully in advance but choosing the exact wording during the speech itself.
What is a canon of delivery?
Rules or standards for preserving your speech.
What is physiological anxiety?
Bodily reponses to a perceived threat (increased heart rate, adrenaline rush)
What is pyschological anxiety?
Mental stress about a perceived threat.
What is internal Monologue?
I-M; self talk.
What is cognitive modification?
Identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones.
What is visualization?
Rehearsing by using your imagination to envision your speech from start to finish.
What is habituation?
Lessining of anxiety when an experience is successfullyrepeated over time.
What is Ethical Communication?
The concious decision to speak and listen in ways that you, in light of your culural ideals, consider right, fair, honest, and helpful to others as well as to yourself.
What is heckling?
Taunting, insulting, ridiculing, or shouting down another person.
What is resisting?
A response to diversity i which you refuse to change and you defend your own positions or attack others.
What is assimilating?
Response to diversity in which you surrender some or most of your ways and adopt cultural patterns of another group.
What is multivocal society?
A society that actively s seeks expression of a variety of voices or viewpoints.
What is diliberate fraud?
Knowing, intentional plagiarism.
What is cut-and-paste plagiarism?
Copying material word-for-word and then patching it together without quotation marks or citations.
What is improper paraphrase?
Changing some words of a source but keeping the basic sructure and ideas intact without citing it.
What is accidental plagiarism?
Plagiarism due to lack of knowledge about the rules.
What is frabrication?
Making up information or repeating a rumor without sufficiently checking its accuracy.
What are cultural allusions?
References to historical, liteary, and religious sources that are familiar in a specific culture.
What is stereotyping?
Placing someone in a category, and then assuming the person fits the characteristics of that category.
Define prejudiced.
Having preformed biases or judgments, whether negative or positive.
What is speech-thought differential?
The difference between the rate you think (about 500 words per minue) and the rate you speak (about 150 words per minute).
What is leftover thinking space?
Another term for the difference between your thinking rate and your speaking rate.
What are schemas?
Mental plans or models that guide your perception, interpretation, storage, and recollection of a speech.
What is comprehensive listening?
Listening to learn, understand or get information.
What is critical listening?
Listening that requires you to reflect and weigh the merits of persuasive messages before you accept them.
What are loaded questions?
Questions containing implications intended to put the speaker on the defensive.
What are closed questions?
Requests for breif, separate answers. Use them to gain precise information or to verify your understanding.
What are open questions?
Requests for more lengthy responses.
What are clarification questions?
Requests to clear up confusing ideas. Ask if confussed.
What are requests for elaboration?
Questions aksing for more information.
What is a comment?
Information from personal experience or research.
What is audience analysis?
Identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively.
What is a listening speaker?
Dialogical speaker who hears audience interests and concerns beore, during, and after a speech.
Define pedestrian audiences.
Random, temporary, and accidental auciences who were not intending to hear a speech.
What are passive audiences?
Grouops that listen to accomplish other goals.
What are selected audiences?
Groups that choose to listen to a slected subject or speaker.
What is an homogeneous audience?
Listeners who are similar in attitude.
What are hostile audiences?
Listeners who are negative toward the topic or the speaker.
What are concerted audiences?
Listeners who are positive toward a topic but don't act; they need motivation and a plan.
What are organized audiences?
Motivated listeners who need specific instructions.
What are absent audiences?
Intentional listeners separated in distance and time who are reached through various media.
Give an example of a pedestrian audience.
A salesman's flashy demo of a food processor, impassioned voice of n activeist in an outdoor forum, or the humorous stories or sidewalk entertainer.
Give an example of a passive audience.
Speech classes; listeners are there for grade not interest.
Give an example of a organized audience.
"how to" speeches
Give an example of an absent audience.
Listeners through the radio, telephone calls, television, the Internet, etc. Audience is separated from speaker.
What is demographic audience analysis?
Identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity.
What is a salient group?
A group that is more significant or relevent.
What is ethnicity?
Heritage and cultural traditions usually stemming from national and religious backrounds.
What are behavioral effects?
Influences on audience actions.
Give another wynonym for thesis statement.
A central idea.
Define delivery.
How you perform your speech or how you present your words and ideas.
Define impression monagement.
Self-presentation, using the metaphor of a staged drama in which we use props and personal mannerism to create and maintain impressions of ourselves.
When you present verbal and nonverbal mesages that you actually believe, you are _______.
If you intentionally choose to create false or misleading impressions, you are being _________.
________ are gestures that stand in the place for words or ideas.
Give an example of an emblem.
A head nod means yes.
________ are gestures that add emphasisi to or illustrate verbal messages.
Define affect display.
Showing emotion through bodily movement.
______ are bodily movements that manage or help mediate interactions.
________ are gestures that betray stress or fear.
Define self-adapters.
Nervously touching yourself (like biting your lips) when you're stressed.
Define Object Objectors.
Nervously touching or playing with items like pens or jewelry.
Define After adapters.
Gestures, like folding your arms protectively, that betray nervousness about the audience.
What is articulation?
The way you enunciate or say specific sounds.
What are vocal variations?
Changes in volume, rate, nd pitch that combine to create impressions of the speaker.
What are unfilled pauses?
Silent pauses.
What are filled (vocalized) pauses?
Saying um or uh or other sounds during a pause
Define homo narrans.
A Latin phrase that identifies humans as storytelling animals.
Define Applied Storytelling.
Using stories for practical purposes, not just for entertainment.
What is constructed dialogue?
Created conversation that adds realism to a story.
Define exemplum.
An organizational pattern in which a narrative is used to illustrate a quotation.
Define coherence.
Deciding if a narrative is understandable or sensible.
What is narrative fidelity.
Testing if the narative faithfully represents how the world works.
What is narrative merit.
Testing whether or not a narrative is worth telling.