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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Case Studies
The products of delibrate study of an individual, (the changes that happen to the individual are observed)
Anecedtotes: share some feature with each of the other categories of narrative, also serve a support for abstract ideas and concepts
organizational structure of a narritve is time related, sequential series of changes as they occur over time
specific physical location, when, where, and what
subjects are similar to case study; life history of an individual, organization, natural phenomenon
Essential Narrative Elements
1) movement through time
2) change
Prescriptive Definitions
commonly created for brand-new terms, ie: new technology, inventions or developments, "Unknown= slang"
the building up of small events, or changes and their relations to each other arouses curiosity
appeal and emotional impact of narritive is the focuas on characters, allows listenerns to find a point of concrete personal ID; not always human
Bookend Stories
the same story is used in both the introduction and conclusion, providing a fram for the speech, part of the story then the rest
Descriptive Definitions
reflect the established and conventional useage of a word, "Everyone knows"
commpn approach to explaining term ie: ie: knife is a tool or knife is an insturment
Verbal Examples
create vivd, easily remembered image of the term- "what an object is..."
an example of what the term is not, "what a word is not.."
Secondary Definitions
defining typical sub-categories or parts that make up the whole term, -Sub categories- ie: happiness- feining several different types of happiness, exhilaration, contentment, and joy
need to be complete enough so there is no possibility that a knife will ne confused with a sward, a pair of scissors, or a razor. ie: a cutting instrument consisting of a sharp blade with a handdle.
Sensory Examples
for some terms, the best example is one the audience can see, hear, touch, smell, or tates.
Physical properties
create a mental picture for the audience of hte aspects that can be percieved only be human senses.
Parts, whole, and their relationships
the relationship of parts with each other and with the whole object adds an additional compnent, another variation ahtat emphasizes the parts and whole is a description that moves form a general description to description of specific details
Concrete, specific language
their very nature, general, abstract terms do not create pictures in our heads
Ladder of Abstaction
continuum of descriptions of the same thing for the most abstract to the most concrete
most abstract
a thing
a living organism
an animal
a carnivore
a cat
a male adult siamese
my 17-oldsiamese cat, koko who has blue points and a lout meow
most concrete
Spatial Categories
structures, places, and objects lend themselves well to a spatial or geographic organization of the information. other spatial categories are: inside and outside, left to right, and center to periphery
Sensory Categories
subdivisions as: how it looks, how is sounds, how it smells, how it feels, how it tastes: overall image from becoming too fragmented, the speaker should re-integrate the physical properties during the conclusion so the listeners are left witha a composite picture
Time Order
using a time sequence based on a gradual discovery of the properties is another overall organizational frame a speaker can select.
Same class comparison
those in which the pair seem alike at first glance
Types of comparision speeches
1) to explain complex ideas and processes
2) to explain common experiences ina new way
3) to assist the audience in making choices
organizational partterns for comparison speeches
1) divided- you name the two things being compared and then list all the features or criteria for one thing and then for the other
2)alternating- you show hoe each compatible freature sompared to the other thing you may list each criteria first
Choosing comparison items
1) the two items being compared must be have significant similarites
2)the other element must be already familiar to the audience
3)speakers must be sure they can legitimately support the cliamed superiority of the chosen situation
4)it is better not to intermix different comparison in a short space of time, esecially within one sentence
5) try to make comparisoins new and fresh
Different class comparison
those that initially are seen as very different form each other when observed as a whole
Topic Selection
1) start with surveying your own specialized knowlege
2) determine if the subject you now have in mind is something that would be worthwhile for your audience to learn about
3) can you find a comparisison approach that will be useful in presenting the topic
4) can you find an appropriate object, idea, process to compare your topic to
Comparitive language
commonly used to condense or simplify complex ideas or plnas such as political programs: metaphors
Planning outline
-introduction transition
-thesis and preview
-developmetn of main point 1
-internal transisition
-development of main piont 2
-and so on
-restatement of thesis and summary
Lower level supporting claims
represent natural divisions of the main points they support
Steps for preparing a speech
the builder begins by surveying what is possible ans what will limit the speakers range of choices
Central claim of the speech, one-sentence encapsulation of the speech
Main Points
The second levels of claim developed to cupport the thesis
Second level supporting claims
dividing of the supporting claims
Main Point realationship
theose first level claims that support the thesis, should logically evolve from the two parts of the thesis: subordinate ideas that are the natural divisions of hte thesis and will be presented as the lables for the major divisions of the body of the speech
Support Materials
are more concrete and more specific than the claim statements and have the function of developing and supporting the claims of the speech
an example but not just any example: it is a model, archetypical example
Supporting claims
each main point may be sub-divided into two or more "supporting claims"
draw the audience into the speech: narrative, statement that surprises, questions
Introduction transition
1) general background about the topic such as history, explanation, definitions
2) the relevance of the topic for the audience
3) the background of the speaker
Plan of Speech
speacker needs to in an obvious manner announce the thesis and preview the main points: word cues can warn the audience the plan is coming: ie; today i would like to talk about
Mirror of the introduction, reiterate the thesis and summerizing the main points
Internal Transistions
found at each major division in the bodu of the speech, one-sentence transistion, summary and preview
Summary (review)
phrase of what was presented in the firest main point
phrase of what will be presented in the second main point
a speaker does not write out the speech word for word
Memory-enhancing variables
1) notivations to remember info
2)the nature of the info to br remembered
3)the understanding of the meaning and relationship of the info
4) repetition and rehearsal of the information
Memory-enhancing Strategies
1) introduce both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to memoize
2) choose vivid language that emphasizes the dramatic and/or vital nature of what is to be learned
3) use humor or entertaining strategies
4) make the content meaningful
5) point out and/or creat association
6) incoporate repition, audience participation and practice
a logical first step is to attempt to change the nature of the information from meaningless to meaningful; outside sources, personal mental efforts
increase the likelihood of remembering is building "association" between the new information and previously learned information
rewards come from another person or agent and include material reward such as money, cupcakes, and trophies
rewards come from yourself and include self-satisfaction, increased self-esteem, and greater personal independence
Self-Evident claims
acceptable because of the meaning of the words in the claim, not because of the way things are in the world; established by knowing the meaning of words
Empirical Claims
observation of things in this world for their truths, require evidence; means of their own observation, or by analyzing circumstances of hte testimony
Testable claims
you can observe how things are in the world to determine the acceptability of hte claim.
Direct observation
appeals to the listener's senses to make a claim acceptable
a statement of fact or opinion, given by a speaker or someone else, which serves as the basis for beleif
Expert opinion
given on subjects for which ther seems to be no right answer-different experts argue differently
numbers produced from data that has been organized and analyzed, and the number either summarizes the data or describes relationships amoung the data
Factual data
produced from measurements (yard stick, weight scale, or temperature gage), direct obersvation by an expert, or historical record (accumulation of early historical texts and archaeological discoveries)
Quantitative data
(the salary of the university president is 150,000 per year)
Informative statements
(the even numbered interstate highways run east and west, while the odd ones run north and south)
Examples (evidence)
(an example of an interstate highway that runs north and south is I-35. it runs form minesota to texas)
photography, aritifacts, video, or tape recordings, etc.
the extent he or she has a vested interest in establishing a particular point of view or obataining a particular outcome
Circumstantial evidence
consists of accompanying or attendant facts, events, or conditions that point to a claim
Tests of evidence
-is the evidence obviously relevant to the claim
-are conditions favorable to making observations clearly
-are the testimony or circumstances accurately represented i the speech
-is the source who is cited in the speech unbiased and in a postion to know
-have you obtained the most recent evidence
-are all individual pieces of evidence consistent
Soft Evidence
Expert opinion, because there is no single right answer, the experts have come by their opinion through careful work to reduce teh likelihood of ill-informed claims
Hard Evidence
statistics and factual data of expert estimony. claims about which there is hard evidence, are more certainly true or false. ususally, this testimony comes in the form of statitics or facutal data
Citing a source
- name of the person
- date of the publication, date of the interview
- decribe the reputation, field of expertise or postition, years of experience and/or their reputation amoung peers in their field
Visual Aids
a model, diagram, pricture, or demonstration often provides the audience with direct observation or some phenomena or circumstantial evidence
-prepare the VA in advance
-make it large enough for everyone to see
-keep it simple and attractive
-keep it covered when it is not in use
-point to it when you talk
-avoid focusing your speech toward the aid, rather than you audience
expressed whenever a claim is asserted and other claims are offered as reasons in support of it. Set of claims of which one is supported by others.
a claim that provides a reason for accepting another claim
Conclusion (argument)
a claim that is implied or follows from the primises
going from something i already know to what i don't know.- when a conclusion is drawn form two or more premises
Premise Indicators
include such words and phrases- after all, and, as a matter of fact, becuase, by contrast, even so, finally, for, furthermore, however, in addition, indeed, in fact, in support of, it been observed that, moreover, nevertheless, now, of course, on the on hand...on the other hand, seeing that, since. NOT SEEN AS MUCH
Conclusion indicators
as a result, consequently, hence, it follows that, so, therefore, thus, the piont is, this implies (or entails) that, we may conclude that. SEEN ALL OVER
informative claims the provide the basis for the conclusion
a claim that explains the connection of the data to conclusion
indicates the defree of support for the conclusion- indicators- certainly, probably, presumably, likely, possibly, plausibly, maybe, so apparently, so far as the evidence, goes, for all we can tell
Serial Argument
one in which the conclusion for one argument become a premise for another
Linked Argument
uses several reasons to support the some main conculsion
Deductive Reasoning / Argument
emloy a form of reasoning that strickly follows the rules of logic and, as a result, the primises prove the conclusion
Inductive reasoning/ Argument
a valid deductive argument has premises that guarantee tha conclusion, but an inductive argument has premises that provide only probable support for the conclusion.
reasoning- we sort out evidence form past experiences to reason about some new situation
when it is not possible that the premises are true and the conclusion is false
a relationship less strong
Test to see if it is Valid
-find warrent of argument
-diagram 2nd half of warrent
- diagram 1st half of warrent
- add data (X)
- check conclusion
1) actually true premises
2) a conclusion that follows necessarily from the premises (valid)
-reserved only for deductively valid arguments having actually true premises
doesn't meet the criteria for being sound
Causal Argument
Cause and Effect- have warrents taht assert the existence of a relationship between two or more events such that one event leads to another- two events, one procedes the other, both are connected to each other
Sign Argument
the presence of one event is used to indicate teh presence of some condition- presence of an event indicates the presence of another
Argument by Inductive Generalization
interference is made from a subset of a population, called a sample, tow the whole of the population. a sample may consist of people, objects, events, or precesses, about which something is observed. The result of the observation are generalized to the larger group or population
Evaluation and argument by Inductive Generalization depends on two issues:
1) the size (bigger the better)
2) composition of the sample- ex. soem what like larger group- 18yr old is not like a wwII vet.
Argument by Analogy
reasoning by analogy proceeds from the similariy of two or more objects in one or more feartures to their similariy in some additional feature. compare the features of two objects..
Two Criteria of Argument by analogy enhance the propbablity that the conclusion will succeed
1) the number of features shared by objects
2) the extent to which the features are relevant to the conclusion- don't look at 1 thing to determine other- not related
Necessary Condition
have to havea in order to have b, but it is possible b won't happen at all
Evaluating Sign Reasoning usually depends on knowing two things
1) how reliable the sign is of indicating the presence of some condition
2) the number of signs that corroborate the conclusion
Sufficient conditon
if a occurs, then b occurs