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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When was the first time fed's recognized Learning disorders?
1969
definition of learning disorder.
The term "specific learning disability" a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think speak, read, write, spell, or do mathamatical calculations.
disorders included in fed definition.
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
disorders not included in fed definition
does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
factors to consider in the definition of an ld
IQ achievement discrepancy. Central nervous system dysfunction. Psychological processing disorder. Influence of environment.
4 types of assessment for ld
1. standardized achievement assesment. 2.formative assessment 3. informal assessment 4. authentic assessment
standardized achievement assessment.
a method of evaluating a person that has been applied to a large group so that an individual's score can be compared to the norm, or average.
formative assessment
measures student behavior to track progress; teacher assesses classrom behavior ( rather than some test behavior); repeated measure of behavior across time; monitors effectiveness of teaching; compares student to him or herself
curriculum based assessment
a formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the particular curriculum to which students are exposed; usually involves giving students a small sample of items from the curriculum in use in their schools
informal assessment
look at student's regular work.
authentic assessment
assess students' critical thinking and problem solving abilities in real life situations. Portfolios are a type of authentic assessment.
portfolio
a collection of samples of a student's work done over time.
Psychological and behavioral characteristics
1. interindividual and intraindividual variation 2.academic achievement 3. perceptual/motor and coordination 4. attention and hyperactivity 5. memory, cognitive and metacognitive 6. social and emotional 7. motivation
interindividual variation
variation among children with learning diabilities. (heterogenity)
intraindividual variation
variation within a child's own profile of abilities
about reading and lds
reading poses the most difficulty for students with ld
decoding
the ability to convert print to spoken language
phonological awareness
the understanding that speech consists of small units of sound such as words, syllables and phonemes
phonemic awareness
understanding that words are made up of sounds, or phonemes.
reading fluency
refers to the ability to read effortlessly and smoothly.
dyslexia is
a reading and writing problem together
written language problem
problem with handwriting, spelling, and composition
spoken language problem
problem with syntax (grammar),semantics (word meaning),phonology (break words and blend sounds),pragmatic (conversation)
problems with metacognition
include inability to recognize task requirements, select and implement appropriate strategies and monitor and adjust performance
cognitive training
involves changing thought processes, providing strategies for learning and teaching self initiative
direct instruction
emphasizes drill and practice and immediate feedback; lessons are precisely sequenced, fast paced and well rehearsed by the teacher
self- instruction
requires individuals to talk outloud and then to themselves as they solve problems
self-monitoring
requires individuals to keep track of their own behaviors
list educational considerations for students with ld
cognitive training, self instruction, self monitoring, scaffolded instruction, reciprocal teaching
scaffolded instruction
teacher provides temporary structure or support while students are learning a task; the support is gradually removed as the students are able to perform the task independantly
reciprocal teaching
involves an interactive dialogue between the teacher and students in which the teacher-student relationship is similar to that of an expert and an apprentice
service delivery
trend toward regular ed placements but parents and teachers do not want regular ed only so now these students are most frequently served in resource settings and regular ed rooms
perseveration
a tendancy to repeat behaviors over and over again
sub-types of adhd
adhd predominantly inattentive type; adhd predominantly hyperactive type; combination inattentive and hyperactive
predominantly inattentive characteristics
easily distracted;does not appear to listen; struggles to follow through on instruction and fails to finish tasks; avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort; forgetful in daily activities
predominantly hyperactive characteristics
fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat; runs about or clibs excessively in inappropriate situations; talks excessively; difficulty waiting in turn taking situations
adhd and idea
children with adhd are not automatically protected by idea 97; all children with adhd, even those with special medical diagnoses and medication clearly are not eligible for special education and related services; some children with adhd are eligible for special education under categories like ld,ohi and ed ; the oly category where adhd is specifically called out is the other health impairment category;
4 components of assesment of adhd
medical exam; clinical interview; rating scales; behavior observation
doctor office effect
hyperactive child behaves appropriately during evaluation and it is difficult to distinguish the adhd
causes
most likely a result of neurological dysfunctions; heredity appears to play a strong role; abnormal levels of neural transmitters such as dopamine
psychological and behavioral characteristics of adhd
deficiencies of behavioral inhibition; deficiencies of executive functioning; adaptive skills; problems socializing with peers; often coexists with another disability
educational considerations for adhd
planning ahead; rules and consequences; movement when teaching; clear instructions; physical arrangements; teach self-regulation strategies; teach tools for academic success; functional assessment
functional assessment
tool used to isolate the function of a behavior; examines antecedants and contingencies; most aberrant behaviors are found to be related to escaping demand or seeking attention
medication considerations for adhd
psychostimulants
pychostimulants:
stimulate or activate neurotransmitters
physiological side effects of psychostimulants
anorexia; insomnia; headaches; dark circles under eyes; nervousness; stomache upset; weight loss; nausea
emotional side effects
sadness; social withdrawal; self-consciousness; depression; diminished self concept; fearfulness
issues related to adhd medication
drugs like ritalin calm kids down even better than previously thought; medications like ritalin are thought to increase those chemicals and stimulate the inhibitatory receptors producing the odd result of a stimulant drug's acting to increase inhibition; medication alone has no long term benefit on how children do academically; 25% of parents with children diagnosed with adhd refuse to give their children the drugs; ritalin's use has increased 700% in the last decade; ritalin does not cure adhd
myth of the paradoxical effect of ritalin
now discredited belief that ritalin acts to subdue the behavior of people with adhd but not that of people without adhd
the most obvious problem of children with emotional or behavioral disorders
is their failure to establish close satisfying and emotional ties with other people who can help them.
fed definition of emotionally disturbed
exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked extent, which adversely affects educational performance: an inability to learn that cannot be explained be intellectual, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships with peers and teachers; innappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fear associated with personal or school problems
critics of definition of ed
most widely criticized aspects of the definition is its exclusion of children who are socially maladjusted but not emotionally disturbed. There is a move to interpret social maladjustment as conduct disorder
conduct disorder
aggressive, disruptive and antisocial behavior often exhibited by those identified as having behavioral or emotional disorders
most common types of problems exhibited by those with emotional or behavioral disorders are:
externalizing- that is agressive, acting out disruptive behavior
gender difference in prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders
boys outnumber girls in displaying these behaviors by a ratio of 5:1 or more
causes of emotional and behavioral disorders
biological; family factors; school factors; culture
psychological and behavioral characteristics
iq achievement gap; social and emotional externalizing; agression; social and emotional internalizing
externalizing
aggressive acting out behavior
internalizing
immature, withdrawn behavior and depression
educational considerations for children with e/bd
behavior is a function of environmental interactions; goals is to teach appropriate behavior; manipulation of antecedants and consequences is essential; balancing behavioral control with social and academic learning; need to consider full rang of options for placement; discipline, functional behavioral assessment and positive behavior supports