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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what 3 specimen types have to be given special care when transporting/processing?
1. Swabs
2. Urines
3. Stools
-ASAP, in a biohazard ziploc bag.
What three types of media are used for culturing?
What are most common of each?
1. Enriched - BA, CA
2. Selective - CNA, Enterics, MTM, Campy BA, SXT.
3. Fungal - SABDEX
To hold specimens, which should
-Room temp
-Refrigerate URINE to prevent falsely elev. colony counts.

-Hold others at R.T. in case of fastidious pathogens.
State incubation conditions for:
-CNA, Enterics
-Campy BA
CA/BA: CO2, 37, 24-48 hrs
CNA/Ent: just 37; 24 hrs
MTM: CO2, 37, 72 hrs
SXT: CO2, 37, 48 hrs
Campy BA: 42, microaerophilic.
Sabdex: 30, up to 4 wks, normal atmosphere.
How many different culture types do we consider? What are they?
2-Reproductive tract
6-Tissues/body fluids/bone
7-Eyes, ears, nose
8-GI tract
9-Respiratory tract
What are the 2 usual defense mechanisms of the urinary tract?
1. Urethral sphincter keeping the system closed.
2. Downwrd urine flow
What is the most common type of lower UTI?
What usually causes it?
Bladder infection (cystitis).
-Occurs when fecal material ascends from the perineum to the urethra/bladder.
What commonly causes cystitis in

Who is it more common in?
M: secondary to prostate enlarg.
F: shorter urethra

More common in women
What kind of UTI can occur other than the usual cystitis?
UPPER - but it's rare.
What is an upper UTI called?
What causes it?
Pyelonephritis (kidney inf)
Causes: ascending infection from a normal UTI, or spread through bloodstream from a primary infection elsewhere.
What are 3 urine specimen collection methods? Which is most common or rare?
1. Midstream clean catch - very common
2. Catheterized
3. Bladder - very rare
What are the components of a collection kit for micro urine?
1. Sterile container
2. Antiseptic towelettes
3. Directions - how to wipe to clean, void the first portion of urine into toilet, catch several mls midway through.
what would you do a bladder urine for?
anaerobic organisms.
what is the method for doing a catheterized urine colletion?
-Push catheter into bladder
-Kink tube; urine collects.
-Open portal w/ eedle; aspirate..
what is the clinical interpretation of urine culture based on?
the colony count!
what is evidence of infection?
skin contamination?
100,000 col/ml
10,000 to 100,000
Skin is <1000, unless patient is pyuric.
How is a primary urine culture set up?
-one enteric plate
-one blood agar
What are 3 types of urine rapid screens?
1. Dipstick for leukocytes and nitrite.
2. Direct gram stain
3. Automation
how do you do a urine gram stain?
put a 1/100 calibrated loopful on the slide, gram stain.
Look on oil for 1 or more bact. cells/field - very hard!
what are the 7 normal flora at the outer urethra?
Coag neg staphs
S. viridans group
Saprophytic neisserias
Commensal mycobacterias
What are common upper UTI pathogens? (normal plus 4)
Things ascended from bladder, &
-M. tuberculosis
-S. aureus
what are 6 common lower UTI pathogens?
1. E. coli
2. Enterobacteriaceae
3. S. saprophyticus
4. Enterococcus
5. Ps. aeruginosa
6. Yeasts