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43 Cards in this Set

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Antigen or immunogen
Is a chemical substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T-cells.
Antiserum
A blood derived fluid containing antibodies.
serology
The branch of immunology that studies blood serum and antigen-antibody rxns in vitro (test tube, Petri dish or inside a living organism).
antibody
A protein produced by B-cells in response to an antigen, and capable of combining specifically with its specific antibody. An antibody has at least two identical antigen-binding sites.
Gamma globulin
The serum fraction containing immunoglobulins (antibodies); also called gamma globulin.
immunoglobulins (Ig)
A protein (antibody) formed in response to an antigen and can react with that antigen.
Describe an IgG antibody molecule.
The igG antibody molecule is shaped like a Y. It contains two heavy chains and two light chains. The two branches of the Y each contain one light chain and one part of each heavy chain. The stem of the Y is composed of the remaining parts of the two heavy chains
What do the Fab and the Fc portions of the antibody determine?
-The Fab (the top arms region of the Y) fragment antigen binding determines specificity.

-The Fc (stem region of the Y) fragment determines antigen class.
List the 5 classes of antibody & give the major characteristics of each.
-IgG- monomer; are most abundant in serum, it CROSSES the placenta, recognizes Rh antigens.

-IgM- have 5 monomers(pentamer- 10 binding sites), does NOT cross placenta, recognizes ABO antigens.

-Serum IgA- 2 dimers; secretions/body fluids (mucus, tears, saliva, and colostrum), protect mucosal surfaces.

-IgD- monomer; antibodies are antigen receptors on B-cells; no known function.

-IgE- monomer; antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils and are involved in allergic rxns.
B cells
a type of lymphocyte; differentiates into antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory cells
macrophages
a phagocytic cell; a mature monocyte
helper T cells
a specialized T cell that often interacts with an antigen befor B cells interact with the antigen
plasma cells
a cell that an activated B cell differentiates into; plasma cells manufacture specific antibodies
memory cells
a long-lived B or T cell responsible for the memory, or secondary response.
Four types of adaptive immunity
1) Naturally acquired active immunity: Exposure to foreign antigen (pathogen)

2) Naturally acquired passive immunity: Breastfeeding IgA (colostrum) and cross the placenta (IgG), mother to baby.

3) Artificially acquired active immunity: Vaccines (actual antigen)

4) Artificially acquired passive immunity: Antibodies injected (i.e., Rhogam, anti-venom, antiserum)
Antibody-Mediated (humerol) immunity:
Involves B-cells (which have individual (single) specificity (DNA rearrangement). Each B-cell is geared for different antigens (specificity), i.e., (trillion) specificity. At random, DNA is rearranged and that is how it is possible for the trillion-plus specificity.
Macrophages (APC) Antigen-presenting cell.
Foreign antigen (on the APC) binds to a receptor on a helper T-cell, and activates it. When macrophages phagocytize they put (present) fragment of pieces on the outer edge of the cell wall.
Helper T-Cells:
The helper T-cell, once activated, sends a message to activate the B-cells; Active the immune response
B-Cells:
Once the B-cell is activated by the Helper T-cell, it either multiplies (proliferates) and becomes a plasma cell, or in a few instances, will become a memory B-cell.
Plasma Cells:
Plasma cell secretes antibodies (against the original bacteria) outside the cell wall (into the blood), which is then eaten by the macrophage.
Memory Cells:
Remember that pathogen and next time will start the immune response faster so the pathogen doesn’t become a disease.
What are the results of antigen-antibody binding: (or functions)
1) Agglutination: Clump them together (viruses; bacteria)

2) Opsinization: Enhancement
of phagocytosis by stimulation

3) Antibodies activate complement (stimulates inflammation and MAC)

4) Neutralization (of viruses and toxins)

5) Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity – stimulated by antibodies (eosinophils – tells them what to attack)
Primary Immune Response:
The first time your body is exposed to a virus/ pathogen. It takes a while for the immune system to catch up with the pathogen. (During the time that the immune system is being activated, you have the disease).
Secondary Immune Response:
Remembers the pathogen, and the immune system will start faster so that the pathogen does not become a disease; responds faster, stronger, and lasts longer.
CELL MEDIATED (CELLULAR) IMMUNITY:

What three types of cells are killed by cytotoxic T-cells?
1. Virus infected cells – have different proteins on their surface.
2. Tumor cells – also have different proteins on their surface
3. Transplanted cells – Tissue rejection
Cytokines:
A small protein released from human cells in response to bacterial infection; directly or indirectly may produce fever, pain, or T-cell proliferation.
Antigen-presenting cells
(APC) – Macrophages and dendritic cells:
Cytotoxic T-cells (Killer T-Cells):
(Killer T-Cells): Also have specificity; get activated by Helper T-cells
Suppressor T-cells:
Have the opposite effects of Helper T-cells; suppress the immune response
Natural killer cells:
Not specific (no specificity for antigens); Similar to cytotoxic T-cells
What cells are infected by HIV?
CD4 receptors
Why is HIV infection so effective at suppressing the immune response?
HIV – attacks the cells that are important in the immune system. Immunosuppressive meds suppress the cytotoxic T-cells
Explain why vaccinations work?
Stimulate a primary immune response so if you are exposed to the pathogen again, the secondary immune response will begin. (Vaccines are the primary response).
Inactivated (Non-living/killed) whole-agent vaccines:
Salk polio vaccine: First one in the 50’s
Influenza vaccine (injected): Specific to the strain(s) (H&N spikes)
Trivalent (against three different strains)
Attenuated (Weakened) whole agent vaccines: Can still infect
Sabin polio vaccine: (oral) The virus has to be active –
Enters thru the lining of the intestines. Multiplies slowly – faster immune response because it is alive – makes more antibodies.
Influenza vaccines (nasal sprays)
Subunit Vaccines (not the whole agent/virus; just pieces of the cell wall)
Acellular pertussis vaccine: Whooping cough – bacteria causes this – the toxin (safety issue)
Hepatitis B vaccine: Use a protein coat or spike – no nucleic acid – won’t reproduce (recombinant)
Conjugated vaccines (attach it to another protein that will stimulate an immune response)
Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccine (surface is a polysaccharide)
Toxoids (modified toxins, no longer toxic)
Diphtheria vaccine retain enough of the strain, so that antibody will be recognized.

Tetanus vaccine
Combined multiple vaccines (because there is more than one – easier)
DPT: diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus

MMR: measles, mumps and rubella (attenuated)
Explain the use of the TB (PPD) skin test and BCG vaccine:
To see whether you are going to have a secondary response – put in a protein under the skin – if you have been exposed, you will have a reaction (rash, bump).
SEROLOGY:
(Serum/antiserum (serum with antibodies against some kind of antigen)
What are the benefits of using antibodies for diagnostic immunology (serology)?
1. Use antibodies to detect antigens (Ag)

2. Use antigens to detect antibodies (ABS)

These tests are specific and sensitive. Easy to use (i.e., home pregnancy test – enzyme is used – resultant color change)
-The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to measure the amount of the hormone hCG in blood or urine to see whether a woman is pregnant.
What techniques are used to detect antibody-antigen binding?
ELISA: (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay): A group of serological tests that use enzyme reactions as indicators.

RIA (radio immunosorbant assay): Uses radioisotopes/Geiger counter; extremely sensitive
Immunofluorescent: resultant neon color

Precipitin ring test: Add the possible antibodies – agglutinate (clump together – see a powder on the bottom). Done in a capillary tube.