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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the components of the skin.
Epidermis, Dermis, Skin appendages, and SubQ fat
The epidermis is made up of 4-5 layers. name them from inferior to superior and identify the layer that is variable.
stratum basalis, s. spinosum, s. granulosum, (s. lucidum - only in thick skin like feet and hands), s. corneum.
the stratum basalis cells proliferate and move up toward the external world. what are the cells called after they leave the basal layer.
they go from basal cells to keratinocytes.
name a disease where the basal layer is overproliferative.
how long does it take a cell to go from the basal layer to the corneum and be shed?
approximately one month (faster in psoriasis)
Name the cell that lies in the epidermis and protects our nuclear DNA from the sun's harmful rays.
how many melanocytes are there compared to keratinocytes?
there is 1 melanocyte per 12 keratinocytes.
this specialized epidermal cells protects us by being an antigen presenting cell.
Langerhan cell
The basement membrane (dermal-epidermal junction) is made up of what?
lamina lucida, basal lamina, and anchoring fibers.
this specialized cell lies in the basal layer of the epidermis and is responsible for touch and proprioception.
merkel cell
this autoimmune disease is characterized by creating IgG antibodies to the hemidesmosomes of the basement membrane and causes blistering disease.
Bullous pemphigoid
This layer of skin contains nerves, blood vessels, sweat glands (apocrine and eccrine), sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and nails.
What makes up the matrix of the dermis?
collagen, elastic fibers, and ground substance.
What are eccrine and apocrine sweat glands responsible for?
eccrine help regulate the body's temperature and Apocrine have no physiologic function but do mix with bacteria and cause body odor.
this primary skin lesion is a flat area of discoloration that is <1cm.
macule (example: freckles)
this primary skin lesion is a macule that is >1cm.
patch (solar lentigo - "liver spots" see on elderly people)
this primary skin lesion is raised, not fluid filled, and <1cm.
papule (exampl: acne vulgaris)
this primary skin lesion is flattend, elevated area on the epidermis, is >1cm.
plaque (ex. psoriasis)
this primary skin lesion is raised, fluid-filled (pus filled).
pustule (impetigo or sebacous cysts) fluid may be due to bacteria or be sterile
this primary skin lesion is rasied, fluid-filled and <1cm and filled with serous exudate.
this primary skin lesion is a vesicle that is >1cm and may be due to a burn or an autoimmune disorder to the basement membrane (hemidesmosomes).
bullae (bullous pemphigoid)
this primary skin lesion is a red edematous papule or plaque with irregular borders. what test is done to confirm it.
wheal (ex. urticaria - test: get a positive dermatographic test - rub a tongue blade on the patient and it will leave a wheal)
this primary skin lesion is circumscribed, partly raised solid like a papule, but the raised portion is made of dermis. they are <1cm and may be soft.
nodule (ex. basal cell carcinoma)
this primary skin lesion is a nodule that is >1cm.
tumor (ex. squamous cell carcinoma)
this secondary skin lesion is a red plaque that is superimposed with stratum corneum that shouldn't be there.
SCALE (ex: psoriasis - hyperactive epidermis - found commonly on knees and elbows)
this secondary skin lesion consists of dried heme and exudates on a lesion. scratch -> bleed -> dries -> ____.
CRUST (ex: scab)
this secondary skin lesion is a circumscribed loss of epidermis (goes all the way to the dermis and may go deeper).
this secondary skin lesion is a circumscribed loss of epidermis (more shallow than an ulcer).
this secondary skin lesion is a circumscribed linear erosion or linear ulcer.
fissure (angular cheilitis - seen in people with no teeth - cracks/fissures in the sides of mouth/lips)
this secondary skin lesion is a circumscribed thinning of the skin.
atrophy (ex. striae; skin may look hypopigmented or red)
this secondary skin lesion is a hypertrophic area of the skin, thickening.
scar (ex. keloid)
name the term that describes skin that has been chronically scratched. it is irreversible.
this specialized skin lesion is a self-induced erosion or ulceration.
excoriation (lesch-nyhan syndrome - people scratch their faces off)
this specialized skin lesion is the primary lesion in acne vulgaris and is where sebum is left in the pore because it is plugged up.
open comedo (black head)
this specialized skin lesion is also seen in acne but there are no dilated follicles. they are white or skin colored.
Closed comedos
this specialized skin lesion are small inclusion cysts in the skin; aka. white cystic papules; there is a genetic predisposition.
milia (part of path of porphyria cutanea tarda)
this specialized skin lesion is a freely movable nodule or tumor.
cysts (hallmark sign=dilated orifice on surface = epidermoid or sebaceous cysts)
This is a name for rock hard lesion that you have to palpate to identify.
induration (peyronie's dz of the penis had areas of induration)
Scabes (a microscopic mite) do this to the skin (more commonly finger-webs).
this is a blanching macule or patch. it is composed of open blood vessels.
this circumferential NON-blanchable macule or patch is <1cm and is composed of extravasated blood that stains the skin red.
this type of petechiae may be flat or papable, is >1cm, and may be due to low platelet count, vasculitis, trauma).
this is the name for larger purpura. very common in trauma.
ecchymosis (bruise)
name the term that means when you scratch it, the lesion will travel to where ever you scratch.
Name the 5 different configurations of skin lesions.
1)linear (ex. cutaneous larval migrans and striae), 2)annular, 3)Iris or Target (ex. erythema multiforme); 4)Grouped (ex. herpes); 5)Dermatomal - Zoster/shingles