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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What animals are the Sireneans?

What are some anatomical features of this group?
dugongs, manatees

very dense bone
tooth replacement like elephants
hind gut fermenters: helps maintain buoyancy
mammary glands axillary
abdominal testes
compound multireniculated kidneys in manatees, unlobulated in dugongs
deep interventricular cleft
heart: lung field long & dorsal
What are some differences b'twn Dugongs & Manatees?
dugongs: streamlined body w/ whale-like tail, strictly marine, form true herds

manatees: blimp-like body w/ horizontally flattened tail, euryhaline (can live in fresh or salt water), no true herds
What are some anatomical features of sea otters?
large lung volume
reniculated kidney
no anal glands: unlike other members of family
sparse fat, thick fur, loose skin
What are the major diseases of sea otters?
Profillicolis acanthocephalans: causes peritonitis in juveniles
oiling (ex. Exxon Valdez)
polar bears

a. type of kidney
b. major diseases
a. reniculated
dermatophilosis: captivity
green fur from algae: captivity
sterotypical behavior: captivity
rabies reported
What are the families that make up the group Pinniped?
Phocidae: true seals
Otariidiae: fur seals, sea lions
Odobenidae: walruses
What are some differences b'twn true seals & fur seals/sea lions?
true seals: marine, freshwater, estuarine; hind flippers cannot go forward, all flipper surfaces are furred

fur seals & sea lions: marine only, have small ear pinna, hind flippers go forward: agile on land, naked palms & soles
What are some anatomical features of walruses?
no lower incisors
fused mandibular symphysis
tail enclosed in web of skin
round tongue tip (not notched)
What animals are the Cetaceans?
Mysticetes: baleen whales
Odontocetes: toothed whales (includes beaked wholes, dolphins, porpoises)
What are some major viral & parasitic diseases that affect Pinnipeds?
morbillivirus (Phocid distemper virus): closely related to canine distemper
influenza virus
poxvirus (parapox)
calicivirus (San Miguel Sea Lion virus = Vesicular Exanthema of Swine): originated in sea lions, then spread to land
herpesvirus (PHV-1): high mortality rate in neonates, primarily in captivity

lung & nasal mites, lung worms (in juveniles), heartworms (in captivity)
leptovirus in seals

a. clinical signs
b. lesions
a. depression, PU/PD, reluctance to use rear limbs, fever, occ. icterus
b. abortion, nephritis, hemorrhagic syndrome in fetuses & neonates
What are some anatomic characteristics of baleen whales?
2 external blowholes (nasal openings)

baleen: keratin
-filters water, then they lick of crustaceans/fish that stick inside
What are some differences b'twn dolphins & porpoises?
dolphins: small & active, prominent beaks, many teeth in both jaws, large tapering flippers

porpoises: small, no beak, spear like teeth, low dorsal fin
What are some anatomic characteristics of Cetaceans w/ regard to:

a. GI tract
b. kidneys
c. ears
a. 3 compartment stomach, duodenal ampulla
b. kidneys extensively lobulated (renules): each w/ own cortex, medulla, blood supply
c. acoustically isolated from skull, wide interaural distance, external auditory meatus vestigial, auditory fats/wax esters in mandible
What are some major viral diseases of Cetaceans?
poxvirus (tattoo lesions)
What are some bacterial diseases of Cetaceans?
Erysipelas: Erysiplothrix rhysiopathiae: affects dolphins
peracute/subacute form: rapid death w/ few clinical signs
cutaneous form: rhomboid dermal plaques (rare)
rx: penicillin, tetracycline, or enrofloxacin
may be a 2º invader

Meliodosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei
zoonotic concern
assoc. w/ monsoons in East Asia

bacterial pneumonia
• chief cause of mortality in captivity
signs: lethargy, anorexia, halitosis, dyspnea, pyrexia, leukocytosis
rapid progression
dx: clinical signs
rx: correct environmental problems, AB therapy
What are some fungal diseases of Cetaceans?
2º to other problems: immunocompromise, unbalanced water disinfection (over-chlorination)
lesions frequently around body orifices
dx: yeast on bx &/or culture
rx: itraconazole, other antifungals

Keloidal Blastomycosis (Lobo's dz): reported only in man & dolphin
keloidal dermatitis w/ systemic spread
What are some misc. medical problems of Cetaceans?
gastric ulcers: common in captivity: assoc. w/ stress
Monorygma, Phyllobothrium: tapeworm cysts
Stenurus: roundworms & trematodes common in sinuses
What are some sites for Cetacean venipuncture?
main site: fluke (tail fin) vessels
other: caudal vein, cardiac puncture for euthanasia
What are some unique properties of cetacean hematology?
higher PCV w/ deeper divers
large RBCs

granulocyte: mononuclear ratio: 50:50 or higher
eos: 6-12%
What are venipucture sites for:

a. seals?
b. sea lions?
a. intervertebral extradural sinus (midline b’twn wings of ilium)
b. external jugular v., caudal gluteal v. (good b/c not near head)
secondary site: interdigital vv.
What are some unique features of pinniped hematology?
higher PCV w/ deeper divers (45-60%)
large RBCs

granulocyte:mononuclear cell ratio of 70:30
eos: 6-10%
sea otters

a. venipuncture site
b. hematology features
a. tail stick
PCV: mid 50s
large RBCs

granulocyte:mononuclear cell ratio of 70:30
eos: 1-6%

a. venipuncture site
b. hematology features
a. vessel b'twn radius & ulna
b. PCV: 30-40
low WBC response w/ infection
have heterophils
granulocyte:mononuclear cell ratio near 50:50
What are some clin path prognostic indicators for:

a. cetaceans
b. Tursiops
c. in general
a. RBC sedimentation rate (ESR): inc. in acute inflammation
b. serum iron: drops dramatically w/ inflammation (<100: poor px)
c. poor signs: dec. ALP, eosinopenia
What are some cytologic methods used in marine mammals?
blowhole evaluation: cytology & culture
bronchial wash
gastric wash
blubber bx
What are some unique serum chemistry findings in marine mammals?
AST not liver specific in seals, manatees
BUN normally high (40-60), except in manatees, polar bears
high fasting BG (> 100 mg/dl)
loggerhead turtles

a. diet
b. species status
a. mollusks, crabs, fish
b. threatened
ridley turtles

a. 2 types
b. species status
c. diet
a. Kemp's, olive
b. Kemp's: endangered, olive: most numerous sea turtle
c. crabs, mollusks, fish
green turtles

a. diet
b. species status
c. unique feature of fat & plasma
a. herbivores
b. endangered or threatened
c. green tint
hawksbill turtle

a. diet
b. species status
c. source of?
a. sponges
b. endangered
c. tortoise shell
flatback turtle

a. unique fact
a. post-hatchling stage is near shore: unusual

a. unique features
b. diet
c. species status
a. heterotherms, only sea turtle species w/ soft shells
b. jellyfish
c. endangered
What are some causes of decline in sea turtle numbers?
fisheries & boating interactions
egg & meat consumption
marine debris --> GI impactions
loss & degradation of nesting habitat
What are some unique anatomic features of sea turtles?
outer & inner skull: small brain, very well protected
salt glands
esophagus: keratinized papillae: keeps solid food down
What are some venipuncture sites for sea turtles?
external jugular v. (dorsal cervical sinus)
interdigital vv.
What are some methods of anesthesia for sea turtles?
medetomidine + ketamine
sevo: 2 breaths/min
What are some unique clin path findings in sea turtles?
nucleated RBCs
heterophils, azurophils
BUN normally high (except in green, leatherback)
biliverdinemia (green serum): liver dz
How can you determine the sex of a sea turtle?
adults: males have elongated tales
juveniles: must do laparoscopy
What are some diseases of sea turtles?
hypothermic stunning
metabolic bone dz
"tank syndrome"
What is the triage policy for wild bird rehab?
high priority: endangered or threatened species
non-releasable animals: options for education, display, captive breeding
non-releasable & non-endangered: consider humane euthanasia
What are some safety features assoc. w/ handling

a. raptors
b. wading birds
a. go for feet 1st
sharp powerful talons, sharp, hooked beak (many bite: esp. owls, falcons, eagles, vultures)
wear heavy gloves, goggles, etc.

b. wading birds (herons, egrets) & some water birds (cormorants, etc.) can cause blindness or death w/ their beaks; wear eye protection & restrain heads
What are some captive management problems assoc. w/ wild bird rehab?
bumblefoot: any inflammatory problem of foot
feather damage & self-induced injuries
traumatic injuries
orphaned raptors: metabolic bone dz, imprinting, habituation
Mycoplasma gallispeticum: conjunctivitis in song birds
West Nile
high path AI
bumblefoot (wild birds)

a. causes
b. lesions (mild, moderate, severe)
c. prevention
d. tx
a. improper perches, overgrown talons, puncture wounds, bacterial infection (Staph aureus, E. coli), contralateral limb injury, obesity, poor substrate (waterfowl)
mild: red, smooth skin, minor erosions --> good px
moderate: swelling, hyperkeratosis, ulceration --> fair px
severe: abscess, cellulitis, osteomyelitis --> poor px
c. examine feet regularly, correct underlying problems, address early problems, appropriate perches for raptors
d. wound management, topical meds, ABs based on C/S, protective bandaging, sx if needed (debridement)
feather damage & self induced injuries in wild birds

a. lesions
b. prevention
a. soft tissue trauma to cere, carpal joints, feet, feather damage, broken blood feathers
b. appropriate housing, protective tail sheath +/- “wrist bumpers”, “imping”: replacing feathers w/ feathers from another bird of same species (make a splint)
What are some dietary problems assoc. w/ wild bird rehab?
deficiency: calcium (most important): can cause metabolic bone dz; also vitamin D3, vitamin A (parrots), thiamine
excesses: obesity in long term captives --> bumblefoot, fatty liver, cardiac dz, etc.
restraint & anesthesia of zoo species:

TIME = _______________
What are some methods of chemical restraint delivery w/ zoo species?
hand syringe
pole syringe
blow darts
remote projection: palmer type, telinject/daninject
inhalation: chamber, mask
What are some factors affecting dose of drugs used for restraint in zoo species?
degree of excitement
What are some causes of failed immobilization of zoo species assoc. w/ no effect & what should you do?
failed dart (most common)
delivery to depot site (ex. fat)
wrong dose
spoiled drug

what to do: reschedule if elective procedure, else wait 10 min. & repeat full dose
What are some causes of failed immobilization of zoo species assoc. w/ inadequate effect & what should you do?
underestimated weight
partial delivery (not all drug got in)
old or adulterated drug
overexcited animal

what to do: wait 10 min., then give another ½ dose (can give a total of 1 full dose & 2 ½ doses, then STOP)
What are some causes of failed immobilization of zoo species assoc. w/ excessive effect?
overestimated weight
IV/arterial delivery
metabolic dz
What are the 2 pieces of legislation important to lab animal medicine & how does each define "animal"?
Animal Welfare Act (USDA, APHIS)
animal: warm blooded animals, except birds, lab rats & mice, farm animals/agricultural research

PHS Policy (Dept. of Health & Human Services)
animal: any live, vertebrae animal
What are the key elements of an institutional animal care & use program?
institutional official
attending vet
What are the responsibilities of IACUC?
review & approve animal use protocols
evaluate animal facilities & programs
report to IO & make recommendations
review & investigate concerns
have the authority to suspend activities
What are the responsibilities of attending vet in lab animal setting?
DVM must be full member of IACUC
resources & methods to prevent, control, dx, & tx dz & injury
emergency, weekend, holiday care
daily observation of animals by trained personnel: direct & frequent communication w/ DVM
guidance to personnel: handling, restraint, anesthesia, analgesia, tranquilization, euthanasia
pre- & post-procedural care
What are the components of preventive medicine in an institutional practice?
purchase of clean animals, not just dz free: purpose bred (SPF, gnotobiotic), random source, farm raised
quarantine of new animals
isolation of diseased animals
biosecurity: barriers
personnel practices
controlled environment
health surveillance: sentinel animals
rapid control of dz outbreaks
"cleaning up" colonies w/ unwanted dz: rederivation (C-section, embryo transfer, neonatal transfer)
What are some issues assoc. w/ small mammals in private practice?
preventive medicine: no vaccines
husbandry is always a key R/O
clin path limitations: sample collection, normal ranges, response to dz
therapeutic limitations: extra-label use, few controlled studies, toxicities
What are some GI diseases of guinea pigs?
AB assoc. enterotoxemia: Clostridium difficle overgrowth
bacterial enteritis (esp. Salmonella)
hypovitaminosis C
What are some non-GI diseases of guinea pigs?
bacterial pneumonia (Bordetella, Strep pneumoniae)
chronic interstitial nephritis
pregnancy toxemia/ketosis
acariasis (sarcoptid mite, fur mite)
pododermatitis (bumblefoot)
cervical lymphadenitis ("lumps")
What are some diseases of rats?
sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV)
chronic resp. dz: Mycoplasma pulmonis
chronic interstitial nephritis
ulcerative dermatitis: Staph aureus?
mammary neoplasia: benign fibroadenoma
What are some diseases of mice?
mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)
chronic resp. dz: Sendai virus +/- Mycoplasma
fur mites
ulcerative dermatitis
mammary neoplasia: adenocarcinoma
What are ddx for poor repro performance in mice & rats?
sexual immaturity
nutritional deficiency
↑ temp or humidity
abnormal light:dark cycle,
presence of male
lack of bedding or nesting materials
disturbing newborns
What are some diseases of hamsters?
proliferative ileitis ("wet tail"): Lawsonia intracellularis
Clostridial enterotoxemia
Tyzzer's dz
renal amyloidosis/chronic renal dz
What are some diseases of gerbils?
Tyzzer's dz: Clostridium piliforme
nasal dermatitis ("sore nose")
What are some parasitic diseases of rabbits?
Coccidia: young rabbits
ear mites
fur mites
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: protozoan
What are some bacterial diseases of rabbits?
Pasteurella multocida: can be systemic
Treponema cuniculi: syphilis
dysbiosis & diarrhea
tularemia: Francisella tularemis
What are some viral diseases of rabbits?
rabbit hemorrhagic dz (RHD): calicivirus
myxoma virus: poxvirus
rabbit fibroma virus
rabies (uncommon)
What are some misc. diseases of rabbits?
heat stress
dental dz syndrome
GI stasis
bladder sludge & calculi
uterine adenocarcinoma
spinal trauma
splay leg
What are some common neoplasms in ferrets?
adrenal adenoma/adenocarcinoma
mast cell tumor
What are some common viruses of ferrets?
canine distemper
epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE): coronavirus
Aleutian dz: parvo in minks
What are some misc. diseases of ferrets?
foreign body ingestion
Helicobacter mustelae
estrogen toxicity
heart dz
HW dz
What drugs should & should not be used for rabbit anesthesia?
anesthesia is to effect

YES: ketamine + medetomidine, midazolam, xylazine, or ace
NO: telazol, propofol
What drugs can be used for analgesia in rabbits?
carprofen PO, ketoprofen IM, meloxicam PO, buprenorphine SQ, IV
antibiotic assc. enterotoxemia of guinea pigs

a. organism implicated
b. ABs implicated
c. main lesion
a. Clostridium difficle overgrowth + toxin elaboration
b. penicillin, ampicillin, etc.
c. hemorrhagic typhlitis
bacterial enteritis of guinea pigs

a. organism implicated
b. dx
a. Salmonella typhimurium
b. fecal or tissue culture, R/O Clostridium sp.
Cryptosporidiosis: guinea pigs

a. dx
a. ID of oocysts on fecal smear, histopath, R/O Coccidia
maloclussion: guinea pigs

a. teeth affected
b. signs
c. tx
a. molars
b. wt. loss, "slobbers", facial dermatitis
c. repeated tooth trimming/filing, hay?
bacterial pneumonia: guinea pigs

a. organisms implicated
b. tx
a. Bordetella, Strep pneumoniae
b. ABs (TMS, enrofloxacin), supportive care, vitamin C
pregnancy toxemia/ketosis: guinea pigs

a. pathogenesis
b. tx
a. obesity + fasting --> fat stores mobilized --> ketosis
b. C-section, glucose, fluids, steroids, vit. C (generally unrewarding)
dystocia: guinea pigs

a. predisposing factors
b. signs
c. tx
a. failure to breed sow before 7-8 mo. of age, obesity, large fetuses
b. depression, hx of late breeding, incomplete relaxation of pubic symphysis
c. if symphysis open: oxytocin
if symphysis not open: C-section
dermatophytosis: guinea pigs

a. signs
b. tx
a. asymptomatic common, pruritic areas of alopecia, excoriations, secondary infection
b. topical miconazole, lime sulfur dip, systemic antifungal
mites, lice: guinea pigs

a. clinical signs w/ each type
b. tx
a. fur mite: usually asymptomatic
sarcoptid mite: pruritis, extensive alopecia, excoriations, secondary infection
lice: usually subclinical or rough haircoat w/ alopecia & crusts
b. ivermectin
pododermatitis: guinea pigs

a. organism implicated
b. predisposing factors
c. tx
a. Staph aureus
b. poor husbandry, wire bottomed cages, obesity
c. tx underlying cause, +/- systemic ABs, surgical debridement, foot soaks
ddx for alopecia in guinea pigs
sarcoptid mites
intensive breeding
ovarian cysts
cervical lymphadenitis: guinea pigs

a. pathogenesis
b. dx
c. tx
a. Strep zooepidemicus --> abscesses
b. culture or impression smear
c. surgical excision & systemic ABs
scurvy: guinea pigs

a. pathogenesis
b. signs
c. tx
a. lack of vitamin C --> defective collagen formation
b. subclinical, ADR, lameness, joint swelling, anorexia, diarrhea, ↓ wound healing, loose teeth, maloclussion, ↑ susceptibility to infection, gingival bleeding, pain
c. parenteral vitamin C, followed by oral for ~ 1 wk (canned pumpkin, +/- fresh cabbage, kale, oranges)
sialodacryoadenitis virus (rats)

a. mode of transmission
b. signs
c. dx
d. tx
a. highly infectious: direct contact or aerosol transmission
b. cervical swelling, rhinitis, 2º ocular signs (squinting, photophobia, keratitis, conjunctivitis, periorbital swelling)
c. usually self-limiting w/ low mortality
symptomatic tx +/- ABs for 2º infection
chronic respiratory dz: rats

a. organisms implicated
b. clinical signs
c. tx
a. Mycoplasma pulmonis +/- Sendai virus, cilia-assoc. respiratory (CAR) bacillus, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Strep pneumoniae
b. rough haircoat, wt. loss, hunched posture, “snuffing”, “chattering”, nasal d/c, head tilt, squinting, chromodacryorrhea, polypnea, dyspnea, +/- subclinical
if Strep pneumoniae, usually dysnea, sudden death
c. elimination difficult, even w/ elimination of clinical signs
colony: rederiviation
+/- ABs, steroids, bronchodilators
ulcerative dermatitis: rats

a. organism implicated
b. tx
a. Staph aureus, usually secondary to self trauma
b. local cleansing, trim toenails, topical ABs (ex. silver sulfadiazine), steroids?, antihistamines?
mammary neoplasia

a. most common tumor in rats
b. most common tumor in mice
a. fibroadenoma
b. adenocarcinoma
muse hepatitis virus

a. transmission
b. signs
c. lesions
a. highly infectious; fecal-oral, aerosol, fomites
b. usually subclinical in immunocompetent animals +/- wt. loss, ↓ fertility
naïve sucklings: +/- diarrhea, runting, high mortality
c. absence of milk in stomach of sucklings w/ flaccid, distended gut +/- multifocal hepatic necrosis
chronic resp. dz: mice

a. organisms implicated
b. tx
a. Sendai +/- Mycoplasma
b. ABs may ↓ signs, but generally not curative
fur mites: mice

a. signs
b. tx
a. subclinical, generalized hair thinning, rough haircoat, alopecia, pruritis, +/- ulcers
b. ivermectin
wet tail: hamsters

a. organism implicated
b. signs
c. tx
a. Lawsonia intracellularis
b. lethargy, rough haircoat, hunched appearance, irritability, watery diarrhea, +/- death
c. supportive, ABs (TMS, enrofloxacin, tetracycline)
Tyzzer's dz: gerbil

a. organism implicated
b. signs
c. tx
a. Clostridium piliforme
b. sudden death, or short period of lethargy, rough hair coat, etc. +/- watery diarrhea, perianal fecal staining
c. supportive, but often unrewarding
nasal dermatitis: gerbil

a. predisposing factors
b. signs
c. tx
a. relative humidity > 50%, overcrowding
b. alopecia, erythema, focal dermatitis around nares +/- spread beyond nasal area
c. address predisposing factors: ↓ stress, humidity, provide sandbath +/- topical cleansing