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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the structure bulging from the front of the eye?
What is the pink stained disk in the eye?
What is the pigmented material anterior to the lens?
What is the space between the cornea and the iris?
Anterior chamber
What is the space between the iris and the lens?
Posterior chamber
What is the space posterior to the lens?
Vitreous chamber
What is the purple-stained layer at the posterior of the eye?
What are the 3 tunics that enclose the eye?
1. Corneoscleral layer
2. Uveal layer
3. Neural layer
What is the corneoscleral layer composed of?
What is the Uveal layer composed of?
-Ciliary body
What is the Neural layer?
The retina
What nerve emerges from the eyeball?
CN II - optic
What is the major refractive structure of the eye?
The cornea
How much of the corneoscleral layer consists of each part?
Cornea = anterior 1/6
Sclera = posterior 5/6
What are the 5 layers of the cornea?
1. Corneal epithelium
2. Bowman's membrane
3. Stroma
4. Descemet's membrane
5. Corneal endothelium
What type of epithelium is the Corneal epithelium?
Stratified squamous nonkeratinized ~5 cells thick.
What is present within the Corneal epithelium?
Many free nerve endings
What is Bowman's membrane?
The basement membrane of the corneal epithelium.
What makes up the bulk of the cornea?
The stroma
What is the stroma made of?
200-250 Lamellae
What are lamellae?
Dense collagenous tissue fibers that are oriented perpendicular to one another (orthagonal)
What is interspersed within the lamellae?
GAGs, glycoproteins, and cells.
What type of collagen are the fibrils in lamellae made of?
Type I collagen
How are the Type I Collagen fibrils within a given lamellae oriented to each other?
How are the collagen fibrils in adjacent lamellae oriented to one another?
What is Descemet's membrane?
The basement membrane to the corneal endothelium.
What is the corneal endothelium made up of?
Simple squamous (one cell layer) epithelial cells.
What do corneal abrasions expose?
Bowman's membrane
What layer of the cornea is scraped away during lasik surgery?
The stroma
What is the iris?
An adjustable diaphragm
What does the iris control?
The amount of light entering the eye through the iris' central pupil.
What tunic is the iris part of?
The uveal layer
What does the pupil divide the anterior compartment into?
Anterior/posterior chambers
What make up the stroma of the iris?
-Collagen fibers
What is the muscle that is arranged circumferentially around the pupillary margin?
The sphincter pupillae muscle
What is the muscle that is arranged radially from the pupillary margin?
Dilator pupillae muscle
What type of innervation does the Sphincter pupillae recieve?
What type of innervation does the Dilator pupillae recieve?
What are the 3 main components of the lens visible on the microscope?
-Lens capsule
-Anterior lens cells
-Lens fibers
What type of cells are the Anterior lens cells?
Simple cuboidal epithelium - one cell layer thick.
What is the lens capsule?
A thick basement membrane for the anterior lens cells.
What are the wispy light pink fibers that extend from the ciliary processes and insert into the lens capsule?
Zonule fibers
What is a cataract?
Opacity of the lens due to damage or crystallin protein aggregations.
What is the space between the lens and the iris?
Posterior chamber
What is the space posterior to the lens?
The vitreous body
What do the zonule fibers extend from?
Ciliary processes
What are the ciliary processes a projection from?
The Ciliary Body
What does the ciliary body become anteriorly? Posteriorly?
Anteriorly - the iris
Posteriorly - the choroid
How can you identify this uveal layer?
It has pigment cells
What special eye movement is achieved by the ciliary body?
What allows the ciliary body to achieve accommodation?
The ciliary muscles
What type of innervation do the ciliary muscles recieve?
How does contraction of the ciliary muscles achieve accomodation?
It causes the zonule fibers to become slack and allows the lens to poof out as the tension on it decreases.
What covers the ciliary processes?
A double layer of epithelium
What do the outer epithelial cells covering the ciliary body secrete?
Aqueous humor
What is aqueous humor similar to?
What is the function of aqueous humor?
It provides nutrition to the avascular cornea and lens.
Where does the ciliary body release aqueous humor into?
The posterior chamber of the anterior compartment.
What happens to aqueous humor after it's released into the posterior chamber?
It filters through the pupil into the anterior chamber.
Where does aqueous humor go after it gets into the anterior chamber?
It drains into the CANAL OF SCHLEMM
Where is the Canal of Schlemm located?
At the iridiocorneal angle
What is the cornea continuous with posteriorly?
The sclera
What is the sclera?
White opaque connective tissue that covers the posterior 5/6 of the eye.
What is the junction of the cornea and sclera called?
What is an important function of the sclera?
The extraocular muscles insert onto it
The outermost tunic of the eye is the corneoscleral layer; what is the middle tunic?
The uveal layer
What does the uveal layer consist of anteriorly? Posteriorly?
Anteriorly: Iris / Ciliary body
Posteriorly: Choroid
What color is the choroid in our slide?
Dark brown
What is the function of the Choroid?
To absorb stray light that doesn't get absorbed by the retina.
What is the innermost tunic of the eye?
The retina - neural layer
What is the neural layer ANTERIORLY?
The epithelial linings of the iris and ciliary body
What is the neural layer posteriorly?
the retina
What is the junction between the anterior/posterior parts of the neural layer?
What happens at the ora serrata?
The neural layer becomes photosensitive.
How many layers are in the retina?
What are the layers of the retina from innermost to external?
Bruch's membrane
1. Retinal pigmented epithelium
2. Photoreceptor Layer
3. Outer limiting Membrane
4. Outer nuclear layer
5. Outer plexiform layer
6. Inner nuclear layer
7. Inner plexiform layer
8. Ganglion cell layer
9. Optic nerve fiber layer
10. Inner limiting membrane
Why is the choroid so dark brown?
Because it contains open lumens of blood vessels.
What type of cells make up the RPE?
Simple cuboidal epithelium
What special membrane structures do RPE cells have? What for?
Microvilli - to phagocytose vesicles shed by outer segments of the photoreceptors.
Why does the RPE have pigment?
To absorb stray light that passes through the retina and doesn't get absorbed by cones and rods.
Across which retinal layers do the rods/cones span?
-Photoreceptor layer (2)
-Outer limiting membrane
-Outer nuclear layer
-Outer plexiform layer (5)
How are the rods/cones situated with reference to the RPE?
Their outer segments are embedded in it.
What do the outer segments consist of?
Multiple layers of membrane that contain light sensitive pigment.
What are the inner segments composed of?
Structures for protein synthesis and energy production.
What is the thin dark pink line that separates the photoreceptor layer from the outer nuclear layer?
The outer limiting membrane.
What is the outer limiting membrane?
Just a visible junction.
What does the outer nuclear layer contain?
The cell bodies of rods/cones
What happens in the outer plexiform layer?
The axons of rods/cones synapse on interneurons.
What is the layer that is composed of cell bodies of interneurons?
The inner nuclear layer
Where do the interneurons synapse on retinal ganglion cells?
In the inner plexiform layer
What is the cell layer that contains the cell bodies of ganglion cells?
The ganglion cell layer
What makes up the optic nerve fiber layer?
ONFL - unmyelinated axons of ganglion cells.
What do the unmyelinated axons of ganglion cells form?
The optic disc
What does the optic disc become when it exits the eyeball?
The optic nerve.
What is the fine dark line separating the retina from vitreous humor?
The inner limiting membrane.
What is the inner limiting membrane composed of?
Glial cells
Why are the ganglion cell axons unmyelinated?
To be transparent
What is the region where these ganglion cell bodies are moved out of the light path? Why?
The fovea - for high visual acuity.
What usually begins retinal detachment?
A tear in the peripheral retina
What causes retinal detachment to get worse?
Vitreous humor leaks between the retina and RPE
What is the conical depression in the retina directly opposite the lens?
The fovea
What type of photoreceptors are found in the region of the fovea almost exclusively?
What is the fovea located in?
The macula lutea