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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is the inner ear located?
In the petrous part of the temporal bone.
What are the 3 regions of the osseous labyrinth?
-Semicircular canals
What lines the osseous labyrinth?
What does the osseous labyrinth contain?
What is Perilymph fluid similar to in composition?
What is suspended in the Osseous Labyrinth's perilymph?
The membranous labyrinth
What does the membranous labyrinth house?
3 components of the membranous labyrinth; what does each sense?
Cochlea - sound
Vestibule - linear acceleration
Semicircular canals - angular acceleration
What do the chambers of the cochlea spiral around?
The modiolus
What 3 chambers make up the cochlea?
-Scala vestibuli
-Scala media
-Scala tympani
Which chambers are continuous? What is the area where they connect?
Scala vestibuli/tympani - they meet at the helicotrema.
What fluid is contained in the scala vestibuli and tympani?
What is the opening of the Scala vestibuli in contact with?
The Oval window, on which the stapes in the middle ear rests.
What attaches the stapes to the oval window?
An annular ligament
What happens when fluid pushes on the perilymph in the Scala vestibuli?
It transmits all the way to the round window at the end of the scala tympani where it bulges outward.
What is the Scala media filled with?
What is endolymph similar to?
Intracellular fluid
What is the scala media separated from the scala vestibuli by? from the scala tympani?
Vestibuli: Vestibular membrane
Tympani: Basilar membrane
What is the wedge-shaped shelf of bone that projects from the modiolus and helps separate the scala media from tympani?
Osseous Spiral Lamina
What is positioned atop the basilar membrane within the scala media?
The spiral organ
What 2 types of cells make up the spiral organ?
-Supporting cells
-Sensory cells
What are the supporting cells that have their bases widely spread and angle toward ea other?
Inner and outer pillar cells
What is the space created by the inner/outer pillar cells?
The Inner Tunnel of Corti
What supporting cells make up the base for sensory cells?
Inner and outer phalangeal cells
What sits on top of phalangeal cells?
Hair cells
How are inner hair cells arranged?
As a single row
How are outer hair cells arranged?
In 3/more rows
What special surface feature is on hair cells?
What do microvilli project toward and contact?
What does the tectorial membrane project from?
How does sound wave impinging on the oval window transmit to the spiral organ of corti?
It moves the perilymph which causes basilar membrane oscillation.
What are the special elongated microvilli on the hair cells called? What are they in contact with above?
Sterocilia - embedded in the tectorial membrane.
What happens to the sterocilia when the basilar membrane oscillates?
It generates a transverse shearing force between the OHCs and their stereocilia.
What is the neural signal generated by sound from?
Action potentials generated by movement of stereocilia.
What cranial nerve transmits neural signals from hair cells?
CN 8 - the cochlear nerve.
Where are the cell bodies of the bipolar afferent neurons that send auditory info from the cochlea located?
In the spiral ganglia
What allows the cochlear organ of corti to detect different frequencies of sound?
Differences in the width/height and stiffness of the basilar membrane along its length.
What is the basilar membrane like at the Base of the cochlea? Apex?
Base: Thick/narrow and taut
Apex: thin/wide and floppy
Where is the basilar membrane narrower? Wider?
Narrower: at the base
Wider: at the apex
What frequency maximally stimulates the narrow, thick, taut basilar membrane that is close to the stapes?
High frequency
Where is low frequency detected?
At the apex (farthest from the oval window/stapes).
What special vascularized stratified epithelium is located along the outer wall of the scala media?
Stria vascularis
What does the Stria vascularis play a role in?
Maintaining the ionic composition of the endolymph.
Where is the spiral ganglion found?
Within the modiolus
What is a possible side-effect of cochlear implant surgery?
Facial paralysis
What is the elevated ridge of specialized epithelium found within the membranous ampulla?
What do the sensory cells at the crest of the crista ampullaris have?
Stereocilia that extend into gelatinous ECM
What is the gelatinous ECM that stereocilia from the crista ampullaris extend into called?
What do the semicircular ducts contain?
What happens when the endolymph moves?
It causes the cupula to move, which bends the stereocilia in the sensory cells.
How many cristae are there?
3 - one for each semicircular canal.
What nerve recieves sensory information from the cristae?
The vestibular nerve
What type of movement is detected by the cristae in the semicircular canals?
Angular movements
What are the 2 membranous sacs that compose the vestibule?
What type of movements do the saccule/utricle detect?
Linear movements
What are the specialized sensory regions of the utricle/saccule?
What are the 5 areas of epithelium that contribute info to the Vestibular nerve?
3 Cristae in Semicirc Canals
1 Macula of Utricle
1 Macula of Saccule