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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
external signals are converted into
electrical events processed by the CNS
Vision begins
Cornea (modified skin cells) wher light is reflected or bent so that it can focused on the back of the eyee
Cornea
nutrition comes from tears and aqueous humor- also have antibacterial properties
refraction
the bending of light so that it can be focused and projected
movement in eye
cornea>aquaous humor>deeper segment of the eye via the iris diaphragm (pupil) >lens> vicerqous humor> retina
catract
lens is covered therefore vision is blurry
Fovea
light focused (at least bright light) - the area of maximum visual acuity
central area within the macula (a structure in the middle of the retina) Only cones are found here and are specialized for color vision
retina
# of dif. cell types ... most cones found in the fovea, rods more peripheral
bipolar, amacrine and horizontal cells, Ganglion cells make the optic nerve
blind spot
their axon make the optic disc
rods and cones
visual pigments are found here
rhodopsin in rods, others in cones
sound waves are
audible vatiations in air pressure - anything that can move air molecules can create sound like our vocal cords
sound waves travel
the external auditory meatus > ear canal > the tympanic membrane or ear drum
ear drum
cerumen or ear wax found here
attached to the drum are a series of bone hammer, anvil, stirrup (malleus, incus sapes) located in teh middle ear
vibrations in these ear bones are transmitted to teh oval window
sound waves and their reception
the stapes is attached to the oval window
motion at teh window moves fluid in the cochlea
cochlea
fluid filled
ototoxicity
drugs get caught in the fluid filled cochlea
organ of Corti
damaged- you can't here
has hair cells
sitting on the basilar membrane of the cochlea is the organ of Corti
fitted into tectorial membrane
when moving the hairs bend and set
up an action potential--- shearing force this allows you to hear
movements of the basilar membrane deforms teh hair cells and they depolarize resulting in action potential in the auditory nerve
inner ear
important in maintaining balance and equilbrium
vestibular system
saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals
perform the function of balance and equilbrium
provides teh CNS with information relating to teh effects of movement and graviation on the body
disorders of vestibular fxn
include vertigo
the sensation of movement and motion sickness
taste
gustation
4 primary taste sensations
3 tpyes of taste buds contain taste receptors
ageusia
inability to taste