Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/147

Click to flip

147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Optician
dispenses glasses does not diagnose eye problems
Optometrist
state-licensed health care pro
eye exams diagnose and treats eye problems prescribe glasses
prescribes meds drops
Opthalmologist
physician MD doctor of osteopathy DOdiagnosis medical and surgical treatment of diseases of eye and systemic diseases involve eyes routine vision care prescribe glasses
CORNEA covers front of eye most nerve endings in body
several layers refracting surface 2/3 focusing power
CONJUNCTIVA covers outer surface of eye secretes mucus helps
moisten and lubricate eye
SCLERA tough tissue protects outer eye
muscles attach to sclera move eye from side to side upa nad down
VITREOUS thick watery fluid
fills center of eye gives shape
IRIS ****colored part of eye by melanin control size of
pupil divides eye into anterior chamber front
posterior chamber back
PUPIL *****centered on iris
size determines how much light enters eye
LENS *****just behind iris purtpose to
focus light onto retina encased in bag and suspended in eye by tiny fibers
CILIARY BODY PRODUCES ZONULES TINY FIBERS holds lens in place also controls
ability of lens to focus ACCOMMODATION******
zonules RELAX GRIP on lens when ciliary body contracts causes lens to
thicken to focus close up
zonules TIGHTEN GRIP on lens when ciliary body relaxes causes
lens become thinner focus on distant objects
RETINA lines the back of eye contains millions of PHOTORECEPTORES capture light rays and convert them into electrical impulses
CONES photoreceptors best work in bright light appreciate color
RODS photoreceptors best in dim light peripheral and night vision
MACULA *****located in center of retina gives sharp vision for reading cones (6mil)located in
macula rods (125milper eye)scattered in rest of retina
Electric impulses from photoreceptors travel along
OPTIC NERVE *****to brain where they are turned right side up images
CHOROID ****located between retina and
sclera made of blood vessels nourish back of eye
CILIARY BODY PRODUCES AQUEOUS HUMOR also focuses lens
aqueous humor nourishes cornea and lens travels through filter enters channel drains blood vessels in eye
PRODUCTION AND DRAINAGE OF AQUEOUS HUMORO DETERMINES EYE'S IOP INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
Tiny glands surrounding eye produce tears tears form 3 layer film moistens ****nourishes protects eye
outer oil layer from MEIBOMIAN ****GLANDS found on edge of eyelids
MIDDLE WATER LAYER FROM LACRIMAL GLAND**** located below eyebrow
INNER MUCOUS LAYER FROM GOBLET**** CELLS
cells produce mucus
found in conjuictiva
EYELID and lashes protects eye from debris and light
blinking spreads tear film across surface of eye forces tears into drains(PUNCTA)****corner of eyelid
tears pass through several structures eventually dripping into
nasal passage nose runs when crying
vision complicated process eye and brain must ccollaborate eye produces image brain interprets
CORNEA-****CAPTURES LIGHT RAYS REFLECTED
LENS ***FOCUS LIGHT RAYS BEFORE RETINA
RETINA SEES LIGHT RAYS UPSIDE DOWN IMAGE
PHOTORECEPTORS IN RETINA CONVERT IMAGE ****(ELECTRICAL IMPULSES
ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TRAVEL ALONG OPTICE NERVE ****TO BRAIN
BRAIN TURNS IMAGE RIGHT SIDE UP DECODES IMAGE INTO VISION
CORNEA transparent front part of eye separates from air continuous with sclera white
cornea trasmits laser wavelenths no ultravilolet or far infrared irradiation may burn it
IRIS colored diaphragm aperature pupil center controls amount of light entering widens dilates night or narrowing constricting light
LENS transparent structiure behid pupil focuses light on retina visible and near infrared light(absorbed) pass through lens
VITREOUS HUMOR jelly-like substance fills area of eye between lens and retina transparent to visible and near-infrared radiation
structural support for retina
children vitreous consistency similar to egg white \
with age thins becomes liquid
vitreous attached to retina
as vitreous thins separates from retina causing w
floaters
vision quality depends on 3 elements
when correctly proportioned and configured allow light to focus on retina clear vision
Curvature of cornea
power of lens and length of eye
when not arranged correctly 120 mill Am
4 main types of vision problems
MYOPIA*****
nearsightedness
cornea too steep to length of eyeball light enters ey image focuses in front of retina
light does not reach to back of eyeball
HYPEROPIA*****
FARSIGHTEDNESS
cornea too flat length of eyeball image focuses behind retina (light too far back) blurred distorted view of close and distant images
ASTIGMATISM******
asymmetrical or tonic cornea shaped like football eneven bending of light rays may be present with either myopia or hyperopia
PRESBYOPIA*****
in 40's + to need reading glasses or bifocals focusisng lens unable to change shape and focus on close images
n
AMBLYOPIA*****
lazy eye loss of visual acuity one eye lack of use
AMETROPIA*****
error refraction finite distance focused on retina
ASTIGMATISM
asymmetrically curved out of focus cause unknown together with near or farsightedness
BLEPHARITIS
inflammation of eyelids
BLEPHAROPTOSIS ****drooping of upper eyelid
blepharo=eyelid
ptosis=drooping
BLINDNESS
partial or complete no perception of light
worse than 20/200 legally blind
COLOR BLINDNESS
inherited sexlinked recessive
1-10 men
CATARACT****
clouding of lens
CHALAZION
internal hordeolum localized swelling obstrucion of sebaceous glands of eyelid
CONJUCTIVITIS
pink eye inflammation of membrane lining eyelids
CORNEAL ABRASION*****
superficial corneal injuries by foreign bodies ultraviolet radiation
DACRYOCYSTITIS*****
infection of tear sac beween inner corner of eyelids blockage of duct carries tears
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY****
progressive damage to eye's retina long-term diabetes blindness too
DRY EYE SYNDROME
problem quality of tear film lubricates eyes
ECTROPION****
turning out of eyelid lower caused by aging weakening of connective tissues scar tissue Down syndrome
ENTROPION****
turning in edges of eyelid lower lashes rub
EXOPHTHALMIA*****PROTRUSION OF EYEBALLS hyperthyrioidism Graves disease most common cause bulging eyes exopthalmos dont blink
FUCHS DYSTROPHY ***
inherited inner layer endothelium of cornea
GLAUCOMA
fluic pressure intraocular pressure damages optic nerve partial vision loss
HEMIANOPIA
stroke head injury lesion blocks optic pathway to brain partial image
HORDEOLUM stye****
inflammations oil glands eyelids part by bacteria from skin pimples
HYPEROPIA farsightedness
can't see close****** image focused behind retina eyeball too small can outgrow condition
HYPHEMA
blood in front chamber of eye trauma inflammation iris cancer of eye
IRITIS
inflammation of iris
KERATITIS****
blood vessels grow intot cornea loss of transparency caused by infecions Syphilis
KERATOCONUS*****
degenerative disease of cornea thin and bulge cone shaped prevents light on macula nearsighted
MACULAR DEGENERATION****
affects central part of retina
MIOSIS***
reflex contraction of sphincter muscle of iris bright light
MONOCHROMATISM****
color blindness
MYDRIASIS***((*
DIlation of pupil with drops
MYOPIA****
nearsightedness
NYCTALOPIA****
night blindness
NYSTAGMUS
rapid involuntary movements side to side horizantal up and down vertical nys or rotary dancing eyes
OPHTHALMALGIA
pain in eye
PAPILLEDEMA****
choked disk swelling inflammation of optic nerve through optic disk intracranial pressure tumor
PRESBYOPIA****
age associated loss of focusing power of lents
PTOSIS***
drooping eyelid
PTERYGIUM***
Nonmalignant growth of conjuctiva
RETINAL DETACHMENT***
separation of light-sensitive membrane in back of eye injury tumors disease
RETINAL TEAR**(*
opening in retina vitreous humor can leak
RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA
retina loses ability absorb light false incorrect messages
RETINOBLASTOMA
malignant tumor retina children
RETINOPATHY****
diseases affects retina partial loss of vision or blindness diabetics
SCLERITIS****
inflammation of sclera whites infections chemicals autoimmune diseases rheumatioid arthritis lupus
SCOTOMA****
blind spot
STRABISMUS****
deviation of alignment of one eye to other lack of coordination look in different directions
subconjuctival hemorrhage
blood vessel under conjuctiva breaks bleeds coughing lifting vomiting
SYNECHIA****
ADHESION IN EYE COMPLICATION OF TRAUMA BINDS IRIS TO ADJACENT STRUCTURE
TRACHOMA****
chlamydia trachomatis chronic scarring blindness
UVEITIS****
inflammation of uveal tissues iris choroid ciliary body
XANTHELASMA/XANTHOMA****
fatty matierials under skin of eyelids
e
XEROPHTHALMIA****
DRY EYE
corneal transplant ****
surgical tranplantation of donor cornea
dilation of pupils****
mydratic drops into eyes temporary paralysis remain open
echoencephalogram****
diagnostic procedure uses ultrasounfd evaluates farthest part of eye ball for cataracts retinal detachment orbital lesionss intraocular lesions
elecronystagmography*****
group of tests vestibulo-ocular reflex
electroretinogram *****ERG
recording changes in electrical potential of retina with light
extracapsular cataract *****extraction
cataract removal implantation of artificial lens
fluorescein staining****
visualize corneal abrasion
funduscopy****
exam fundus of eye
goioscopy ****
exam anterior chamber angle ocular rotation movement for glaucoma or disease
mirrored contact lens used examstructures front eye drainage system
intraocular lens implant****
lens implanted dduring cataract extraction
iridectomy ****
extraction small segment of iris
keratoplasty****
excision opaque segment of cornea opthalmologic surgery
LASIK surgery***
laser in situ karatomileusis for nearsightedness
ophthalmoscopy***
exam back part fundus
includes retina optic disc choroid blood vessels
phacoemulsification***
removal of lens ultrasound vibs split up lens material tiny particles suctioned out
PHOTO REFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY
FEW LAYERS CORNEAL CELLS SHAVED EXCIMER LASER BEAM
radial keratotomy*****
correct nearsightedness myopia (focus light in front of retina) eliminates glasses
refraction test
measures ability see object at distance with device phoropter or refractor contains lenses different strengths determines myopia hyperopia astigmatism presbyopia
retinal dye injection
look for proper circulation in retinal vessels injected in vein in arm photos taken for blockages or tumorss
retinal photocoagulation*****
surgical uses argon laser for glaucoma retinal detachment diabetic retinopathy
slit lamp exam*****
specialized magnifying microscope examine cornea iris vitreous retina used to examine treat with laser and photograph with camera of eye
tonometry****
process determining intraocular pressure IOP
trabeculectomy****
ssurgical excision portion corneoscleral tissue decrease intraoclular pressure for severe glaucoma
trabeculoplasty
surgical creation permanent fistula drain fluid aqueous humor eye's anterior chamber
visual acuity test
visison determined in each eye Snellen Chart normal vision 20/20 3/8 tall at 20 ft.
visual field test*****
determines loss of peripheral vision
vision test simplest most important components of eye exam 20ft away today with mirrors same format worldwide
numerator distance in feet from eye chart
denominator distance eye with normal can read
20/40= you can see at 20 feet what normal eye can at 40ft
20/16 ? above avarage you can see object from 20ft normal eye sees at 16
Amsler Grid
screening test assssess macula center of retina
evenly spsaced horizontal/vertical lines on blackor white paper small dot
amsler test
home test see corners and sides ? wavy lines holes?
used at home for macular degeneration
orbitotomy****

surgical incision in orbit for biopsy abscess drainage removal of tumor mass or object
tarsectomy****
surgical removal of segmant of tarsal plate of upper or lower eyelid
tarsorrhaphy
partially or completely suturing together upper and lower eyelids
conjunctivoplasty
surgical repair of conjuctiva
corneal transplant
keratoplasty surgical replacement of sscarred or diseased cornea
iridectomy
surgical removal portion of iris tissue
radial keratotomy
RK used to correct myopia
cataract surgeries
lensectomy
extracapsular cataract extraction
intracapsular cataract extraction
phacoemulsification
intraocular lens
aphakia
pseudophakia
ophthalmic durgs
topically superficial infection inflammation of cornea tissues +glaucoma
other drugs systemically severe infecion
Antibiotics prevent bacteria from maintaining cell wall not effective for viral infections
topical antibiotics for eye
bacitracin
ciprofloxacin
gentamicin
tobramycin Tobrex

silver nitrate for newborns
corticosteroid drugs topically for trauma ssurgery allergies contact chemicals
dexamethasone Decadron
medrysone HMS
prednisolone Pred Forte
antiviral ophthalmic drugs
antiviral drugs inhibit viral DNA reproduction against herpes simplex virus are
Herplex
trifluridine
Drugs for glaucoma disease intraocular pressure can lead to blindness
Miochol-E
Miostat
Diamox
beta blockers treat glaucoma block production of aqueous humor decrease IOP
Betoptic
Ocupress
Timoptic
Mydriatic Drugs
dilate pupil mydriasis paralyze muscles of accommodation cycloplegia
atropine
scopolamine
Mydriacyl
Neo-Synephrine
Misc ophthalmic Drugs
BSS balanced sal solutiton irrigate protect
fluorescein yellow water-based dye shows green under fluorescent light for corneal abrasions and ulcers
amblyopia dullness of vision

ametropia defect refractive powers images fail to come to focus on retina

anisorcoria pupils unequal
aphakia crytalline lens absent

astigmatism defect in refractive powers of eye ray of light not focused on retina spread over area
bifocal two foci

blepharitis inflammation of edges of eyelids

blepharoptosis drooping of upper eyelid
choroiditis inflammation of vascular coat of eye

choroidoretinitis inflammation of choroid and retina
corneal pertaining to cornea

cycloplegia paralysis ciliary muscle
dacryocyititis inflammation of tear sac

dacryoma tumor like swelling obstrucion tear duct
diplopia double vision

ectropion process of turning outward edge of eyelid
electroretinogram record electrical response of retina to light

emmetropia normal or perfect vision
esotropia eyeturns inward crossed

gonioscope instrument examins angle of anterior chanber of eye
hyperopia defect in vision parallel rays focus beyond retina farsightedness

intraocular pertaining to within eye
iridectomy surgical excision portion of iris

iridocyclitis inflammation of iris and ciliary body
iridodesis surgical binding of part of iris form artificial one

iridomalacia softening of iris
iridotasis stretching of iris treatment of glaucoma

keratitis inflammation of cornea
keratometer instrument used measure curve of cornea

keratoplasty surgical repair of cornea
lacrimal pertaining to tears

Meige syndrome movement disorder involves excessive eye blinking blepharospasm involuntary jaw lips tongue oromandibular dystonia
myopia defect in vision parallel rays focus in front of retina nearsightedness

nyctalopia night blindness
ocular pertaining to eye

ophthalmologist specializes in study of eye
ophthalmology study of eye

ophthalmopathy eye disease

ophthalmoscope instrument used examine interior of eye
optic eye

optomyometer instrument measure strength of muscles of eye
phacolysis sugical desstruction removal crystalline lens intreatment of cataract

phacosclerosis hardening of crystalline lens
photophobia intolerance of light

presbyopia rays focus beyond dretina farsightedness
pupillary pupil

retinal retina

retinitis inflammation of retina
retinoblastoma malignant tumor germ cell of retina

retinopathy disease of retina
scleritis inflammation of retina

tonography recording of IOP detects glaucoma
tonometer instrument measures IOP

trifocal 3 foci

uveal second or vascular coat of eye
uveitis inflammation of uvea

xenophthalmia inflamed eye condition by foreign material
xerophthalmia dryness of conjuctiva
otolaryngologists
physicians med and surgical treatment diseases ear nose throat ENT head and neck
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o
auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
labryinth/o inner ear
mastoid/o mastoid
myring/o eardrum
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o eustachian tube

staped/o stapes 3rd bone of ear
tympan/o eardrum

vestibul/o vestibule
suffixes

-acusis -cusis hearing
otia ear condition
overview of ear anatomy
organ of hearing
peripheral nervous system
external or outer ear = auricle visible portion of ear
external auditory canal or tube external acoustic meatus
middle ear typanic cavity
tympanum or ear drum
auditory canal or tube eustachian tube canal connects middle ear with nasopharynx

tympanic membrane

ossicles 3 joinedd together bones
malleus incus stapes
inner ear
cochlea sensory nerves for hearing

vestibule contains sensory receptors for balance

semicircular canalss contain senory receptors balance
3 parts to ear
outer part you can see
middle ear canal small bones
inner eardrum auditory nerve
vibrations
funnel through ear opening
down ear
canal
eardrum vibrates
vibrations passed to small bones
transmit to hearing nerve in inner ear
vibrations become nerve impulses
go to brain
inteprets impulses as sound***
outer ear auricle*** or pinna
funnel-like part of ear on side of head
hourglass***-narrowing part
skin has glands produce earwax trap dust and dirt
earwax is healthy in normal amounts coats skin termporary water repellent no wax dry*** itchy
middle ear
air-filled cavity contains 3 bones auditory ossicles**** smallest in body
malleus incus and stapes
tube connects middle ear to pharynx eustachian tube
inner ear
contains cochlea*** processes auditory input and semicircular canals process info regarding balances
cholesteatoma
skin** growth abnormal locale middle ear behind eardrum can take form of cyst*** sheds dkin builds up can increase in size destroy bones of middle ear
otitis media
inflammation of middle*** ear most frequent diagnosis for children common cause of hearing loss
perforated**results in perforation eardrum (tympanic*** membrane)
hole*** or rupture thin membrane seperates ear canal and middle ear inflammation*** occurs with middle ear infections
middle ear connected to nose by eustachian*** tube equalizes pressure
middle ear infections cause pain hearing loss rupture of ear-drum perforation
infected or bloody drainage called otitis media (inflammation middle***ear) with perforation
otoplasy*** pin ears back
stick out more than 4/5 of inch 2 cm from head any age may remove skin cartilage trim reshape secured with stitches can be done when reaches full size***
swimmer's ear
infection of outer*** ear structures water trapped ***in ear canal bacteria*** multiplies causes infection and irritation
noise and hearing loss
1 in 10 ten ***Am. excessive noise exposure most common cause sensorineural hearing loss or nerve deafness can be reduced or prevented
tinnitus
head noises*** common 36 mil ***Am may come and go or continuous
from low roar to high squeal damage to microscopic endings of hearing nerve inner ear
otosclerosis
abnormal growth of bone of middle ear causes hearing loss SSHL sudden sensorineural hearing loss sudden deafness medical emergency
vestibular schwannoma
acoustic neuroma acoustic neurinoma or acousstic neurilemoma

benign slow-growing tumor balance and hearing nerves overproduction of Schwann cells normally wrap around nerve fiberss like onion skin support and insulate nerves
usher syndrome
most common involves hearing and vision disease more than one feature symptom retinitis pigmentosa vision worsens 3 types of US
Waardenburg syndrome
inherited hearing loss changes in skin and hair pigmentation differently colored eyes=hearing loss
Cerumen impaction
earwax tightly packed in external ear canal blocked
Dizzyness
dizzy lightheaded unsteady or giddy imbalace dysequilibrium no sensation of turning or spinning inner ear problem
vertigo
turning or spinning inner ear problem
motion sickness
sea sickness
nausea vomiting in airplane auto rides motion sickness minor annoyance not serious
balance disorder disturbance***
unsteady giddy woozy movement spsinning floating
labyrinth inner ear part of vestibular balance system
labyrinth*** interacts with other systems eyes visual skeletal sytems also brain and nervous system for balance problems
3 structures of labyrinth
semicircular*** canals let us know in rotary circular motion
superior posterior and horizontal semicircular canals fluid-filled motion of fluid tells moving
vestibule region of inner ear semicircular canals converge close to cochlea hearing organ
vestibular system*** works with visual keep objects in focus when head is moving
joint and muscle receptors ****important maintaining balance brain receives interprets processes info from systems control balance
balance maintained by interaction of following parts of nervous system
inner ears labyrinth monitors direction motion turning forward backward side to side up and down
eyes
monitor where body in space directions of motion
skin pressure receptors
joints spine which part of body down and touching ground
muscole and joint sensory recceptors
which parts of body moving
central nervous system
braion and spinal cord
processes bits if info from other 4 make coordinated sense of it all
symptoms of motion sickness dizziness appear when cns receives conflicting messages from other 4 systems
in back of moving car reading inner ears and skin receptors detect motion eyes see only book
movement of fluid in semicircular canals ssignal brain about direction and speed of rotation of head
each semicircular canal has bulbedor enlarged end contains hair cells embedded in jelly-like cupola rotation of head causes flow of fluid displacement of top portion of hair cells nodding or left to righ movements
2 other organs of vestibular system utricle and saccule*** otolithic organs responsible detect linear acceleration moving straight
hair cells of otolithic organs blanketed with jelly-like layer studded with tiny calcium stones called otoconia*** when head tilted displacement of stones cause hair cells to bend
balance system works with visual ****and skeletal systems maintain orientation visual signals sent to brain about position in relation to gravity ****surroundings processed and compared to vesstibular and skeletal systems
ex. interaction visual and vestibular systems vestibular-ocular reflex NYSTAGMUS ***involuntary rhythmic eye movement when spun and suddenly stop
CIRCULATION
brain not enough blood flow lightheaded sometimes poor circ. frequent or chronic basis
poor circ could be caused by arteriosclerosis high blood pressure diabetes ligh levels of blood fats cholesterol inadequate cardiac heart function or anemia
meds decrease blood flow nicotine caffeine excess salt spasms in arteries emotional stress anxiety tension
not enough blood flow to inner ear vertigo occurs
injury
skull fracture damages inner ear vertigo nausea and hearing loss dizziness last for several weeks slowly imporve
infection
viruses cold or flu attack inner ear nerve connections to brain severe vertigo hearing ok
bacterial
mastotiditis completely destroy hearing and equilibruim function recovery similar to skull fracture
allergy
dizziness/vertigo exposed to foods or airborne particles dust molds pollens danders
neurological*** diseases
MS syphilis tumors uncommon
BPPV benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
brief intense vertigo occurs specific positional change of head rolling over looking up cause unknown
labyrinthitis
inflammation or infection of inner ear dizziness loss of balance
Meniere's disease
inner ear fluid balance disorder vertigo fluctuating hearing loss tinnitus sensation of fullness in ear cause unknown
vestibular neuronitis
infection vesibular nerve viral
perilymph fistula
leakage of inner ear fluid middle ear head injury physical exertion unknown
autoimmune inner ear disease AIED****
inflammatory inner ear immune system attacks cells in inner ear mistaken for virus or bacteria rare <1% 28 mil Am
Barotrauma***
injury failure equalize pressure of air-containing space air travel scuba
alternobaric difference pressure between 2 middle ear spaces stimulates vestibular
unequal inlation of middle ear Politzer maneuver
IEDCS inner ear **decompression sickness\\
injury resembles barotrauma treatment diff divers breathe helium and oxygen
IEDCS occurs during ascent decompression or shortly after surfacing barotrauma occurs during descent compression
otitis externa***
furuncles of external auditory meatus
otolaryngologist request hearing exam blood tests electronystagmogram ENG test of vestibular system
caloric test part of ENG flucched with warm then cool water amount of nystagmus measured
posturography
stand on platform visually controlled environment body sway recorded
audiometry
audiogram tersts if hearing loss occurred presenting toness at various pitches
intensity of sound measured in decibels dB whisper 20 dB concerts 80-129 dB jet engine 140-180 dB greater than 85 cause hearing loss
tonre of sound measured in cycles per seconds cps or Hertz low 50 Hz loud shrill 10,000 Hz people 16-16,000
animals 50,000 Hz
tuning fork test hearing air conduction and bone conduction tapped placed against mastoid bone
audiography air conduction earphones attached to audiometer****
Tympanogram**** measures air pressure in middle ear eustachian tube works and eardrum move
myringotomy ***surgical incision into eardrum drainage of fluid relieve pain ventilation tube ***placed
cochlear implants ***
electronic device partial hearing to deaf implanted in inner ear activatied device outside ear directly stimulates nerve of hearing
Tuning Fork test Weber test Rinne test
vibrate produce musical tone ability to hear sound frequencies
stapedectomy****
bypasses diseased bone prosthetic device allows sound waves passed to inner ear
normal ear drum vibrations move malleus hammer connected to incus anvil stapes stirrup transmits sound vibration
otosclerosis deposit of new bone prevents footplate of stapes from moving causing hearing loss
stapedectomy stapes removed prosthesis placed transmit sound vibration from incus anvil to fat plug fascia or vein
mastoidectomy
mastoid air cellss open air-containging spaces in skull bones surgical removal of mastoid air cells now antibiotics
insertion of tympanostomy tubes
small tubes inserted in eardrum drain infection
excision of squamous cell carcinoma excissed with stellate incision across antihelix
HEENT
HEAD EAR EYES NOSE THROAT