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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
outermost layer of the eye; the white of the eye; extends all around the eye, thickest at posterior portion where optic nerve exits. extra-ocular muscles insert on it.
contains extensive vascular and nutrient network that it delivers to the retina which is the layer internal to it. Sclera covers it externally.
-neural layer that is innermost of the three layers (sclera choroid retina).
-photoreceptors and corresponding neurons.
continuation of the sclera (connective tissue), but it sits superficially on top of the pupil and lens. Anteriormost layer of the eye.
just deep to the cornea; central opening of the iris; not really a functional structure, just the part that gets smaller and bigger allowing more or less light to enter the eye
Layer of smooth muscle and vasculature around the iris; contracts and relaxes to allow more or less light through the pupil that is its central opening. Controled by sympathetic system: parasympathetic - pupillary contraction.
sympathetic - pupillary dilation.
Layer of smooth muscle and vasculature around the iris; contracts and relaxes to allow more or less light through the pupil that is its central opening. Controled by sympathetic system: parasympathetic - pupillary contraction.
sympathetic - pupillary dilation.
parasympathetic response of pupils
pupillary contraction
sympathetic response of pupils
pupillary dilation
sits deep to the iris; refracts light rays that hit it; open or closed to light by contraction of the iris, pupil is the opening to the lens.
ciliary body
attaches to the iris smooth muscle, and suspensory ligaments attach to posterior lens; keep it centered within the iris/pupil, give it convex or concave shape.
aqueous space
anterior chamber of the eye; region between the cornea (anterior-most layer) and pupil/iris. contains aqueous humor.
posterior chamber
very small space between bottom of the the lens and the ciliary body (muscles/suspensory ligaments connected to the lens). just underneath muscle layer of iris. contains aqueous humor.
connective tissue covering the eyelid inner and outer surface.
Bright light response
iris contracts to conserve its sanity; a parasympathetic response from c.n. 3 (ciliary ganglion, parasympathetic fibers, etc.)
dim light response
what if you have to fight/flight? need to see, so iris contracts and pupil dilates; sympathetic response
aqueous space
consists of anterior(in front of lens) chamber, and a posterior chamber just behind it.
vitreous chamber
behind the posterior aqueous chamber; the rest of the eyeball.
superior colliculus function
issues motor commands controlling subconscious eye, head, or neck movements in response to visual stimuli.
lacrimal gland
produces tears; superior and lateral to the eye itslef (under upper eyelid)
nasolacrimal duct
in the lacrimal bone, medial orbit; delivers tears to inferior meatus in nasal cavity (on respective side).
Lateral Rectus innervated by c.n. 6
superior oblique by c.n. 4
all the rest by c.n. 3
7 extraocular muscles
levator palpabrae,
superior/inferior oblique,
superior/inferior rectus,
medial/lateral rectus.
Collateral optic innervation response
When light is directed toward the eye, parasympathetic nerves direct the iris to relax, constricting the pupil; these fibers are alerted by collateral fibers that stimulate before reaching the lateral geniculate nucleus; thus, both pupils contrict
the external, visual portion of the ear; flexible, elastic cartilage.
external acoustic meatus
passageway from external ear to the middle ear's eardrum (tympanic membrane)
tympanic membrane
aka eardrum; seperates the external ear from the middle ear.
middle ear
an air-filled space (tympanic cavity)that conatins the ossicles. communicates w/ nasopharynx through eustachian tube.
auditory tube
aka eustachian; communicates with nasopharynx; equalizes the pressure there with that outside the ear.
-tiny bones within the tympanic cavity or middle ear. rattle when sound hits the tympanic membrane. malleus is against the membrane, incus connects malleus to stapes, stapes is in the oval window.
vestibule/semicircular canals
contain receptors that provide sense of equilibrium
cochlear canal
receptors within provide sense of hearing
oval window/round window
open into the vestibular complex (semicircular canal/cochlea).
stapes sits in the oval window and sends impulse to the cochlea; round window bulges with pressure increase in ear, sensed by the equilibriating vestibule
difference between semicircular canals and vestibular utricle/saccule
semicircular canals: sense rotation of the head
utricle/saccule: sense gravitational/linear acceleration.
swollen regions within the ducts of the semicircular canals that contain the sensory receptors to rotation of head.
medial geniculate nucleus on thalamus
recieves auditory impulses
process of sound sensation
1. pressure wave enter external acoustic meatus
2. Tympanum rattles against ossicles.
3. Ossicles transfer vibration to oval window.
4. Pressure at oval window causes membrane over Round window to bulge.
5. Pressure distorts cochlear duct, stimulates hair cells.
6. Hair sensation stimulates auditory neurons of vestibulocochlear nerve (C.N. 8)
intrinsic tongue musculature
styloglossus, genioglossus, hyloglossus.
all innervated by hypoglossal nerve XII
3 types of taste buds
vallate, fungiform, foliate
Gustation innervation
C.N. V3 - mandibular branch; general sensory from tongue, scratch sensation.

C.N. VII - Facial; taste sensory from anterior 2/3 of tongue.

C.N. IX - Glossopharyngeal; taste sense from posterior 1/3 of tongue.

C.N. X - Vagus nerve; taste sensory.