Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aminophylline
Class: methylxanthine
Action: bronchodilator
Tx:
Side Effects: CNS psychoses
Contrain.:
Notes: ↓dose in elderly due to changes in body tissue distribution.
captopril
Class: ACE Inhibitor
Action:
Tx: anti-HTN
Side Effects: oligohydrammnios-anuria, neonatal hypotension, renal dysplasia, hypocalvaria.
Contrain.: 2nd/3rd trimester pregnancy
Notes: assoc. ACEI/ARB foetopathy
carbamazepine
Class: Anticonvulsant, antiepileptic
Action:
Tx: seziures
Side Effects: teratogenic; foetal hydantoin syndrome. Risk less than 10%, lower than phenytoin.
Contrain.:
Notes:
chloramphenicol
Class: Broad-spec antibiotic
Action: inhibits 50S ribosome; bacteriostatic
Tx: gram+/- bacteria
Side Effects: Gray Baby Syndrome; due to aplastic anaemia characterised by metabolic acidosis followed by hypotension, hypothermia, abdominal distension, grey colour, shock, and collapse.
Contrain.: prengancy
Notes: Underdeveloped glucuronic acid conjugation system in neonatal liver causes Grey Baby Syndrome; reversible when serum conc. ↓
Codeine
Class: Narcotic Analgesic
Action:
Tx:
Contrain.:
Notes: Metabolised to morphine by a P450 enzyme (CYP2D6) that certain white people lack. No analgesia + GI side effects = bad.
dexamethasone
Class: Synthetic corticosteroid
Action:
Tx: (infant resp. distress syndrome) foetal lung maturation; stimulates Type II pneumocyte to make fibroblast-pneumonocyte-factor, net result ↑ surfactant.
Side Effects: high doses may cause somatic, brain, and lung growth effects.
Contrain.:
Notes:
digoxin
Class: Na-K ATPase inhibitor
Action:
Tx: CHF
Side effects: cardiac arrhythmias
Contrain.:
Notes: Reduce dose in elderly due to change in body composition.
folic acid
Class:
Action: anti-teratogen; essential nutrient.
Tx: prevent spina bifida
Contrain.:
Notes: all women of childbearing age recommended to take 400μg/day.
gentamicin
Class: aminoglycoside antibiotic
Action: binds irreversibly to 30S ribosomal subunit
Tx: aerobic infections
Side effects: foetal ototoxiticity due to irreversible loss of hair cells.
Contrain.: Pregnancy
Notes:
ibuprofen
Class: NSAID
Action: analgesic action at low doses, anti-inflammatory at high doses.
Tx: help ductus arteriosus to close.
Contrain.: normal-course pregnancy; will cause premature closure of ductus.
Notes:
indomethacin
Class: NSAID
Action:
Tx: help ductus arteriosus to close. Use I.V. administration.
Contrain.: normal-course pregnancy; will cause premature closure of ductus.
Notes:
Notes:
isotretinoin
Class: retinoid (Vit. A analog)
Action:
Tx: acne, chronic dermatoses.
Side Effects: Teratogenic impairment of NS. Interferes with GFs and steroid/thyroid/retinoic acid superfamily. Bone demineralisation in children.
Contrain.: 0-3weeks of pregnancy
Notes:
losartan
Class: ARB (angiotensin AT_1 R antagonist)
Action:
Side Effects: oligohydrammnios-anuria, neonatal hypotension, renal dysplasia, hypocalvaria.
Tx: anti-HTN
Contrain.:
Notes: ACEI/ARB foetopathy. Doesn't work for blacks.
phenytoin
Class: anticonvulsant
Action:
Tx: seizures
Side Effects: Foetal Hyandtoin Syndrome in babies with low levels of epoxide hydrolase. Risk ~10%
Contrain.: pregnancy
Notes:
thalidomide
Class: anti-leprosy
Action: synthetic glutamic acid derivative.
Tx: first marketed as sedative; now leprosy (erythema nodosum leprosum)
Side Effects: causes phocomelia
Contrain.: pregnancy
Notes:
valproic acid
Class: anticonvulsant; antiepileptic
Action:
Tx: seizures
Side Effects: 3x ↑ of neural tube defects
Contrain.: pregnancy
Notes: Assoc. Foetal Hydantoin Syndrome
warfarin
Class: anticoagulant
Action: Interferes with vit. K, inhibiting factors II, VII, IX, and X. Also ihibits bone proteins osteocalcin and γ-carboxyglutamate matrix protein.
Tx:
Side Effects: Foetal Warfarin Syndrome; embryopathies of CNS, haemorrhages. Also, chondrodysplasia punctata, microcephaly, asplenia, diaphgragmatic hernia.
Contrain.: 6th-12th week of pregnancy
Notes: assoc. foetal warfarin syndrome. Warfarin is a small, weak acid that crosses placenta easily.