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105 Cards in this Set

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Gross lesions and other signs of Congenital Hydrocephalus.
Gross Lesions: symmetrically enlarged cranium, thin, dome-shaped calvarium, thin cortex (hypotrophy), open fontanelles and sutures, dilated ventricles, cerebral interstitial edema. Other signs: accompanied by skeletal, heart, kidney defects due to developmental connections to neural development.
Gross lesions and other signs of Acquired Hydrocephalus.
Gross Lesions: normal calvarium, closed fontanelles and sutures, thin cortex (Atrophy), dilated ventricles, cerebral edema (interstitial).
Gross lesions and other signs of Congential Hydromyelia.
Gross Lesions: normal vertebral column, spinal cord parenchyma thinned and symmetrical dilation of central canal.
Gross lesions and other signs of Acquired Hydromyelia.
Gross Lesions: same as congenital.
Gross lesions and other signs of Syringomyelia.
Gross Lesions: cystic to tubular cavities in spinal cord.
Gross lesions and other signs of Porencephaly.
Gross Lesions: small (less that 1 mm) holes in neuropil .
Gross lesions and other signs of Hydrancephaly.
Gross Lesions: severe porencephaly, larger fluid-filled holes in neuropil.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningoencephalocele.
Gross Lesions: asymmetrical enlargement, brain sticking out of skull = protrusion of meninges and nervous tissue into a sac formed under the skin. Other signs: occurs with cranium bifida.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningomyelocele.
Gross Lesions: less visible protrusion of meninges and nervous tissues under the skin, may see a cleft over vertebrae. Other signs: occurs with spina bifida.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningitis.
Gross Lesions: exudate in meninges, hemorrhage, necrosis-- infectious = asymmetrical lesion, toxic/metabolic = symmetrical lesion. Other signs: also have encephalitis and/or myelitis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Supparative Meningitis.
Gross Lesions: cloudy exudate in meninges.
Gross lesions and other signs of Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis.
Gross Lesions: cloudy exudate in meninges. Other signs: supparative arthritis, organ system problems from systemic infection.
Gross lesions and other signs of Adult Bacterial Meningitis.
Gross Lesions: early: actively dilated capillaries (in response to inflamm mediators); later: flattening of sulci and gyri, cloudy, grey to yellow exudate, more fibrinous, --b/c adults have better developed coagulation pathways. Other signs: polyserousitis--infammation of pleural surface.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningeal Fibrosis.
Gross Lesions: fibrosis deep in sulci.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningeal Melanosis.
Gross Lesions: darkly colored meninges.
Gross lesions and other signs of Rabies.
Gross Lesions: NONE--histo: negri bodies--pathopneumonic, homogeneous eosiniphilic inclusion bodies in neuronal body cytoplasm (slide 46). Other signs: dumbness in herbivores-(cerebellum) stand still, stare at ground, loss of motor fx furious in carnivores--hippocampus.
Gross lesions and other signs of Abscesses.
Gross Lesions: malacia, necrosis, well circumscribed, exudate color depends on etiologic agent.
Gross lesions and other signs of Brain Abscesses.
Gross Lesions: circumscribed lesion in neuropil with hyperemic margin, often in brain stem.
Gross lesions and other signs of Spinal Cord Abscesses.
Gross Lesions: ventral abscess. Other signs: paresis caudal to lesion.
Gross lesions and other signs of Protozoal encephalomyelitis.
Gross Lesions: focal discolorization and malacia (necrosis),. Other signs: convulsions, ataxia, paralysis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Fungal encephalomyelitis.
Gross Lesions: varies: none to yellowish malacic foci, yellow gelatinous fluid in sinuses, meninges, neuropil and CSF, may extend into neuropil and elicit granulomatous inflammation .
Gross lesions and other signs of Cryptococcal Encephalomyelitis.
Gross Lesions: yellow gelatinous fluid with white debris in sinuses and meninges Histo: muscarine stain, crypto has thick gelatinous capsule.
Gross lesions and other signs of Encephalic fungal Granuloma.
Gross Lesions: hard to differentiate from tumor--convex bulges and bumps instead of concave "puckering" and pits of necrosis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Neuronal Storage Disease.
Gross Lesions: usu NONE. Other signs: may see carb/macrophage buildup in other tissues as well.
Gross lesions and other signs of Myelin Storage Disease.
Gross Lesions: grey to tan discoloration of white matter, can appear as grey streaks. Other signs: only found in CNS--b/c myelin in CNS (in contrast to carb storage disease).
Gross lesions and other signs of Congential Hepatic Encephalopathy.
Gross Lesions: cerebral edema. Other signs: signs wax and wane, agitated, anxious behavior, tremoring, abnormal venous blood flow pattern in abdomen.
Gross lesions and other signs of Acquired Congential Hepatic Encephalopathy.
Gross Lesions: cerebral edema. Other signs: signs wax and wane, agitated, anxious behavior, tremoring, abnormal venous blood flow pattern in abdomen.
Gross lesions and other signs of Renal Encephalopathy (aka Uremic Encephalopathy).
Gross Lesions: cerebral edema. Other signs: stupor, depression, seizures, vomiting, loss of temp regulation, hypertension, stroke.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cytotoxic Cerebral Edema.
Gross Lesions: HISTO: Intracellular fluid accumulation.
Gross lesions and other signs of Vasogenic Cerebral Edema.
Gross Lesions: HISTO: Extracellular fluid accumulation.
Gross lesions and other signs of Hydrostatic Cerebral Edema.
Gross Lesions: HISTO: Extracellular fluid accumulation, hydrocephalus.
Gross lesions and other signs of Osmotic Cerebral Edema.
Gross Lesions: HISTO: Extracellular fluid accumulation.
Gross lesions and other signs of Increased ICP.
Gross Lesions: flattened gyri, indistinct sulci, cerebellar coning through foramen magnum. Other signs: death from respiratory or cardiac failure.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cerebellar (Cortical) Abiotrophy.
Gross Lesions: normal sized cerebellum --rules out in utero problems--just degeneration of cells on histologic level. Other signs: progressive ataxia, develops some time after birth.
Gross lesions and other signs of Massive Trauma .
Other signs: respiratory and cardiac failure due to ICP effects on vital nuclei.
Gross lesions and other signs of Subtle Trauma due to parasitic larval migrans..
Gross Lesions: serpentine tract.
Gross lesions and other signs of Trauma due to CNS Hematoma.
Gross Lesions: big red blob in CNS--easy to diagnose, hard to treat. Other signs: usually death.
Gross lesions and other signs of Trauma due to Pia-Arachnoid Hemorrhage.
Gross Lesions: blood in subarachnoid space, . Other signs: ascending paresis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Trauma due to Hematomyelia.
Gross Lesions: hemorrhage.
Gross lesions and other signs of Trauma due to CNS Coup-Contrecoup.
Gross Lesions: 2 lesions on opposite sides of brain.
Gross lesions and other signs of Trauma due to Diffuse Axonal Shearing.
Gross Lesions: blood vessels stretched and torn, hemorrhage. Other signs: death w/in 8-12 min.
Gross lesions and other signs of Transectional Axonopathies.
Gross Lesions: HISTO level: degeneration of entire distal nerve segment, degeneration of proximal distal nerve to next node of Ranvier; Chromatolysis=cell body swelling, Nissl substance (proteins for healing), and nuclei pushed to periphery.
Gross lesions and other signs of Dynamic Cervical Myelopathy.
Gross Lesions: protruding vertebrae that pinch the spinal cord when neck is flexed. Other signs: pain w/flexion of neck, hypertrophy of neck muscles due to holding neck straight to avoid pain.
Gross lesions and other signs of Stenotic Cervical Myelopathy.
Gross Lesions: narrow vertebral canal, 50% reduced, pinched spinal cord even when neck is extended.
Gross lesions and other signs of Intervertebral Disc Disease.
Gross Lesions: ventral fusion of vertebrae (ankylosing spondylosis), mineralization of nucleus pulposis, degeneration of annulus fibrosis, disk protrusion or herniation, spinal cord compression. Other signs: depends on location of injury, signs caudal to injury, painful back, atonal bladder (incontinence, cystitis), paresis, infarct in spinal cord (wedge-shaped), cartilage emboli (angiogenesis of healing phase forms vessels around cartilaginous disease), .
Gross lesions and other signs of Vertebral Malformations.
Gross Lesions: Lordosis: ventral deviation of vertebrae, Kyphosis: dorsal deviation of vertebrae Scoliosis: lateral deviation of vertebrae Atlanto-occipital malformation.
Gross lesions and other signs of Meningioma.
Gross Lesions: mass in meninges--brain or spinal . Other signs: brain may adapt if slow-growing mass--and no signs until mass is large.
Gross lesions and other signs of Fibrous Astrocytoma.
Gross Lesions: lesion in white matter, poor demarcation, infiltration, invasive.
Gross lesions and other signs of Protoplasmic Astrocytoma.
Gross Lesions: lesion in grey matter, difficult to differentiate from granuloma.
Gross lesions and other signs of Ependymoma.
Gross Lesions: mass in ventricular system, smooth surface .
Gross lesions and other signs of Choroid Plexus Tumor.
Gross Lesions: papillary surface texture.
Gross lesions and other signs of Schwanoma.
Gross Lesions: malignant or benign unilateral lesions. Other signs: metastasis.
Gross lesions and other signs of neurofibroma.
Gross Lesions: benign--unilateral.
Gross lesions and other signs of neurofibrosarcoma.
Gross Lesions: benign--unilateral.
Gross lesions and other signs of neurosarcofibroma.
Gross Lesions: malignant--unilateral. Other signs: metastasis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Canine Distemper.
Other signs: .
Gross lesions and other signs of Canine Distemper--Acute phase.
Gross Lesions: NONE, histo: very focal acute neuronal degeneration: eosiniphilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Other signs: 2° bacterial infection (IE bronchopneumonia) due to immuno suppression .
Gross lesions and other signs of Canine Distemper--Demyelinating phase.
Other signs: thymic atrophy in young dogs, hard-pad hyperkeratosis, enamel hypoplasia in puppies (emelioblasts destroyed by virus).
Gross lesions and other signs of Chronic CDV Encephalitis (aka old dog encephalitis).
Gross Lesions: NONE .
Gross lesions and other signs of Granulomatous meningoencephalitis.
Gross Lesions: None to yellow foci in brain stem, spinal cord. Other signs: slow onset CNS signs, in older dogs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Neuropododermatitis.
Gross Lesions: excessive wear of footpads with ulceration to bone, sharp lines of demarcation with 2° inflammation. Other signs: generalized or focal loss of sensation in extremities, excessive chewing of paws and/or limbs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Idiopathic Polyradiculoneuritis.
Gross Lesions: NONE. Other signs: acute tetraparesis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Congential Myasthenia Gravis.
Gross Lesions: NONE. Other signs: intermittent progressive muscle weakness, muscles wasting, megaesophagus, aspiration pneumonia.
Gross lesions and other signs of Acquired Myasthenia Gravis.
Gross Lesions: NONE. Other signs: intermittent progressive muscle weakness.
Gross lesions and other signs of Dural Ossification.
Gross Lesions: red plaques in meninges, firm/hard bone in meninges. Other signs: usu. no clinical signs! MAYBE some intermittent thoracolumbar pain if nerves are pinched.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis.
Gross Lesions: yellow streaks in intima (reparative), tortuous, beaded vessels.
Gross lesions and other signs of Brain-Heart Syndrome.
Gross Lesions: pale white foci in myocardium of ventricles, especially in papillary muscles. Other signs: unexpected death 3 to 5 days after neural injury (why it takes 3-5 days, no one knows).
Gross lesions and other signs of Degenerative Myelopathy in dogs.
Gross Lesions: NONE in CNS, symmetrical hind limb muscle atrophy. Other signs: progressive posterior paresis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Dysautonomia.
Gross Lesions: NONE?. Other signs: GI disturbance, incontinence, mydriasis, unresponsive pupils, bradycardia.
Gross lesions and other signs of Viral Cerebellar Hypoplasia.
Gross Lesions: reduced cerebellum . Other signs: cerebellar signs, ataxia from birth.
Gross lesions and other signs of Genetic Cerebellar Hypoplasia.
Gross Lesions: reduced cerebellum . Other signs: cerebellar signs, ataxia from birth.
Gross lesions and other signs of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.
Other signs: hydrocephalus, slow progressive CNS signs, granulomatous vasculitis, yellow-white deposits along vessels (esp. along circle of willlis), granulomatous meningioencephalitis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Feline Ischemic Encephalopathy.
Other signs: sudden onset of signs--but does not get worse (non-progressive), focal malacia, liquefactive necrosis, loss of myelin, gitter cells.
Gross lesions and other signs of Protozoal Encephalomyelitis.
Other signs: yellow-brown foci, multifocal asymmetric lesions in white and grey matter.
Gross lesions and other signs of acute/sudden Protozoal Encephalomyelitis.
Other signs: crescent-shaped parasites, vasculitis, thrombosis, inflammation.
Gross lesions and other signs of progressive/slow Protozoal Encephalomyelitis.
Other signs: parasite rarely found, granulomatous inflamm. responses.
Gross lesions and other signs of Herpes Virus Encephalitis.
Gross Lesions: discoloration in brain, cord, hemorrhage. Other signs: Sudden onset of CNS signs, vascultis, focal necrosis of neuropil.
Gross lesions and other signs of Arboviral Encephalomyelitis .
Gross Lesions: NONE, or hemorrhage in gray matter. Other signs: Sudden onset of CNS signs.
Gross lesions and other signs of West Nile Virus.
Gross Lesions: NONE, or hemorrhage in gray matter.
Gross lesions and other signs of Leukoencehaphalo malacia .
Gross Lesions: "softening of white matter" liquefactive necrosis in frontal or frontal parietal lobes.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cerebrospinal Nematodiasis.
Gross Lesions: focal or linear red tracts in neuropil. Other signs: Sudden onset of brain (CNS signs), if survive, chronic static ataxia, vasculitis, necrosis, hemorrhage.
Gross lesions and other signs of Laryngeal Hemiplegia.
Gross Lesions: Wallerian degeneration of left recurrent laryngeal or vagus n.. Other signs: strange laryngeal sounds, reduced performance.
Gross lesions and other signs of Botulism.
Gross Lesions: NONE--look for other signs--wounds, gi upset in foals. Other signs: flaccid paralysis--motor neurons at myo-neural jx--death by respiratory failure, diaphragmatic paralysis.
Gross lesions and other signs of Toxicoinfections Botulism in foals.
Other signs: alteration in gi of foals.
Gross lesions and other signs of Tetanus.
Gross Lesions: NONE--look for causative wounds. Other signs: hyperesthesia.
Gross lesions and other signs of Degenerative Encephalomyelopathy.
Gross Lesions: NONE--look at histology. Other signs: 6-12 months of age onset--symmetric tetraparesis and ataxia (what else appears in this age group?).
Gross lesions and other signs of Cauda Equina Neuritis.
Gross Lesions: thickening of meninges in cauda equina, granulomatous inflammation, loss of myelin. Other signs: progressive posterior ataxia in horses, flaccid tail, dilated anus (limb weakness?).
Gross lesions and other signs of Dummy Foal Syndrome .
Gross Lesions: laminar malacia (necrosis) of cerebral cortex, hemorrhage.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cholesteatoma.
Gross Lesions: yellow-brown cholesterol granuloma lesions in choroid plexus. Other signs: NONE, incidental finding.
Gross lesions and other signs of Equine Lower Motor Disease.
Gross Lesions: muscle atrophy. Other signs: muscle atrophy, wt loss, difficulty standing.
Gross lesions and other signs of Equine Dysautonomia .
Gross Lesions: NONE--biochemical ganglionic lesion. Other signs: difficulty chewing, swallowing, gut stasis, colic.
Gross lesions and other signs of Hereditary Cerebellar Hypoplasia.
Gross Lesions: looks like in cat.
Gross lesions and other signs of Listeriosis: brain stem of cow gives it away.
Gross Lesions: usu. NONE, sometimes yellow-brown foci of malacia, liquefactive malacia in BRAIN STEM. Other signs: sudden onset, abnormal posture, staggering, blindness, circling.
Gross lesions and other signs of Thrombic Meningiencephalitis.
Gross Lesions: red foci in brain spinal cord, randomly distributed (hematogenously spread), necrotizing, Asymmetric. Other signs: septicemia, respiratory disease followed by a few cases of sudden onset CNS signs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Laminar Cortical Necrosis.
Gross Lesions: red neurons--acute coagulative necrosis, .
Gross lesions and other signs of Polioencephalitis.
Gross Lesions: focal brain edema, attenuated gyri and widened sulci, malacia (liquefactive necrosis) yellow discoloration, ceroid deposits that autoflouresce . Other signs: Sudden onset of CNS signs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Lead encephalopathy.
Gross Lesions: cerebralcortical malacia, similar to polio. Other signs: Sudden onset of CNS signs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Symmetrical Encephalomalacia.
Gross Lesions: Focal yellow-brown foci (usually symmetrical) in Midbrain and/or brain stem. Other signs: Sudden onset of brain (CNS) signs, Progressive opisthotonos, Eventual coma, Gastrointestinal disease.
Gross lesions and other signs of Spongiform Polioencephalopathy.
Gross Lesions: None in CNS or PNS, Skin lesions = loss of wool or excoriation. Other signs: Progressive CNS disorder, Delayed onset, Severe pruritus and wool loss in sheep.
Gross lesions and other signs of Lentivirus Encephalitis.
Gross Lesions: None or possibly a yellow discoloration of paraventricular white matter. Other signs: Progressive CNS disease.
Gross lesions and other signs of Viral Leuko-encephalomyelitis.
Gross Lesions: Ipsilateral spinal cord enlargement, Segmental lesion. Other signs: Goats, 2-4 months-old, Depression, Head tilt, Torticollis–Circling.
Gross lesions and other signs of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis.
Gross Lesions: Ipsilateral spinal cord enlargement, Segmental lesion. Other signs: Goats, 2-4 months-old, Depression, Head tilt, Torticollis–Circling.
Gross lesions and other signs of Pseudorabies.
Gross Lesions: none. Other signs: Young pig, Brain (CNS) signs.
Gross lesions and other signs of Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis.
Gross Lesions: None –Swollen (edematous) gyri are seen occasionally–Woods lamp test may be beneficial. Other signs: Hyperirritability–Blindness–Stumbling, circling–Convulsions–Nervous derangement.
Gross lesions and other signs of Cerebrospinal Angiopathy.
Gross Lesions: None in brain–Possible brain edema–Eyelid edema–Mesenteric edema–Enteritis. Other signs: Ataxia–Convulsions–Paralysis.