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46 Cards in this Set

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Define Persuasion
The process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.
Motivate with Dissonance:
Deliberately create dissonance by focusing on something that makes the audience uncomfortable and then offer solutions.
Motivating with Needs:
Be aware of the needs of your audience and focus on solutions to solve them.
Motivate with Fear:
Arrousing fear creates dissonance. Compeling the audience to take action that will reduce the fear. Ex. quit smoking live longer
Motivating with Postitive Appeals:
Describe what good, positive things will happen if they follow your advice4.
Explain Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Theory that humans have 5 levels of needs. The lower-level needs must be met before they can be concerned about the higher-level needs.
5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy
Self-actualization needs
Self-esteem needs
Social needs
Safety needs
Physiological needs
Attitude
A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to something; a like or dislike.
Belief
A sense of what is true or false
Value
An enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad.
Proposition of fact
A claim with which you want your audience to agree.
Proposition of value
A claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something.
Proposition of policy
A claim advocating a specific action or change of policy, procedure, or behavior.
Credibility
An audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.
Ethos
The credibility or ethical character of a speaker.
Logos
Logical arguments
Pathos
Emotional appeals
Competence
Being perceived as informed, skilled or knowledgeable.
Trustworthiness
Being perceived as believable and honest.
Dynamism
Being perceived as energetic.
Charisma
Characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker.
Logos
Using Evidence and Reasoning
Evidence
Material used to support a point or premise.
Reasoning
The process of drawing a conclusion from evidence.
Inductive
Using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion
Deductive
Moving from a general statement or principle to reach a certain specific conclusion.
Casual Reasoning
Relating two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others.
Logical Fallacy
False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.
Casual Fallacy
Making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events.
Bandwagon fallacy
Suggesting that because everyone else believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate or effective.
Either-or Fallacy
Oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices.
Hasty Generalization
Reaching a conclusion without adequate supporting evidence.
Personal Attack
Attacking irreleveant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself.
Red herring
Using irrelevant facts or information to distract someone from the issue under discussion.
Appeal to misplaced authority
Using someone without the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product.
Non sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conlusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion.
Emotional verbal messages
Use words such as mother, flag and freedom which trigger emotional responses in listeners
Concrete illustrations
Using illustrations and descriptions as types of evidence or supporting material.
Ex. loving mother buckles child in car seat
Nonverbal presentation aids
Visual aids, pictures, slides videos etc.
Problem and Solution
Organization by discussing first a prbblem and then its various solutions
Cause and Effect
Organization by discussing a situation and its causes, or a situation and its effects.
Refuation
Organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
Motivated sequence
Alan H. Monroe's five-step plan for organizing a persuasive message: attention, need, satisfication, visualization, and action.
Strategies for persuading a receptive audience
Identify with your audience.
Emphasize common interests.
Provide a clear objective.
Appropriate emotional appeals.
Strategies for persuading a neutral audience
Gain and maintain attention.
Refer to beliefs & concerns.
Show how topic affects them.
Be realistic.
Strategies for persuading unreceptive audiences.
Don't tell them your are going to try to convince them.
Present strongest points first.
Acknowledge opposing views.
Don't expect a major change in attidues.