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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ser
to be (essence, WHAT something is)
soy
eres
es
somos
sois
son
Estar
to be (condition, HOW something is)
estoy
estas
esta
estamos
estais
estan
Uses of Ser
-express time
-place of origin
-occupation
-nationality
-religious/political affiliation
-what material something is made of
-possession
-relationship of one to another
-impersonal expressions
-where is an event
-essential qualities
Uses of Estar
-geograpic or physical location
-state of condition
-many idiomatic expressions
-progressive tenses
Ser & Estar
(contrasting uses)
-when a noun follows a verb >Ser
-when an adjective follows a verb, decide between "essence" and "condition"
-to tell where something is from >Ser
-to tell where something is located >Estar
-to tell where an event is taking place >Ser
Algo/Nada
Something/Nothing
Alguien/Nadie
Somebody/Nobody
Algun(-o,-a,-os,-as)/
Ningun (-o,-a,-os,-as)
Some, Something/No, None
Siempre/Nunca/Jamas
Always/Never/Never, Ever
Tambien/Tampoco
Also/Neither, Not Either
o...o/ni...ni
either...or/neither...nor
Negatives
-used alone, preceding the verb
-used with the word no, following the verb
-multiple negatives in one sentence possible
-Spanish does not mix positive and negative
Donde?
Adonde?
De donde?
Where (location)
To Where (destination)
From Where
Como?
How
Cual?
Cuales?
What
(common, choices/possibilities)
Which
Cuando?
When
Cuanto(-a)?
How much
Cuantos(-as)?
How many
Que?
What
(elicit definition of explanation)
De que?
Of what
About what
Quien(-es)?
Who
A quien(-es)?
Whom
Con quien(-es)?
With Whom
De quien(-es)?
Whose
Por que?
Why (for what reason)
Para que?
Why (for what purpose)
Possessive Adjectives
mi(s) = my
tu(s) = your (familiar)
su(s) = his, her, your(formal), their
nuestro(-a,-os,-as) = our
vuestro(-a,-os,-as) = your (familiar plural)
Tener
to have
tengo
tienes
tiene
tenemos
teneis
tienen
Venir
to come
vengo
vienes
viene
venimos
venis
vienen
Tener que + infinitive
Someone has to do something
-conjugate tener according to subject
"Tengo que comer las verduras"
Hay que + infinitive
One must do something, it is necessary to do something
-used when there is no subject, general
"Hay que estudiar mucho"
Tener ____ anos
to be _____ years old
Tener frio
to be cold
Tener calor
to be hot
Tener hambre
to be hungry
Tener sed
to be thirsty
Tener sueno
to be sleepy
Tener dolor de
to hurt or be sore
Tener prisa
to be in a hurry
Tener miedo a/de + noun
to be afraid of something
Tener miedo a/de + infinitive
to be afraid to do something
Tener celos
to be jealous
Tener confianza
to be confident
Tener cuidado
to be careful
Tener verguenza
to be ashamed
Tener razon
to be correct
Tener exito
to be successful
Tener la culpa
to be guilty
Tener suerte
to be lucky
Tener lugar
to take place
Tener ganas de
to feel like
Tener en cuenta
to take into account
Tener idioms/expressions
Because they use nouns, they are modified with adjectives, not adverbs
"Tengo mucho frio"
(not muy frio)
Hacer
to do or to make
?Que tiempo hace?
What's the weather like?
Hace frio
It's cold
Hace calor
It's hot
Hace viento
It's windy
Hace sol
It's sunny
Hace buen tiempo
The weather is good
Hace mal tiempo
The weather is bad
Hace fresco
It's brisk
Hacer idioms/expressions
Because they use nouns, they are modified by adjectives, not adverbs.
"Hace mucho frio"
Hay niebla
It's foggy
Hay neblina
It's misty
Hay sol
The sun is shining
Hay luna
The moon is out
Hay relampagos
It's lightning
Hay humedad
It's humid
Hay nubes
It's cloudy
Hay lluvias torrenciales
It's pouring
Hay un vendaval
There's a windstorm
Hay granizo
It's hailing
Hay lloviznas
It's sprinkling
Esta oscuro
It's dark
Esta nublado
It's cloudy
Esta lluvioso
It's raining
Llueve
It's raining/It rains
(Llover)
Nieva
It's snowing/It snows
(Nevar)
Truena
It's thundering/It thunders
(Tronar)
Llovizna
It's drizzling/It drizzles
(Lloviznar)
The personal "a"
-Used when the direct object is a person
"Jorge llama a Maria"
-Used when the direct object is a domesticated animal, for whom the person has feelings toward
"La mujer acaricia a su perro"
-Not used when direst object is not one of the above
-Not used after verb tener or hay
-Not used if direct object is indefinite personal (depersonalized)
Contractions
a + el = al
de + el = del

de+la, de+las, de+los, a+la, a+las, a+los
- never contracted

-el (without accent=the) is contracted
-el (with accent=he) is not contracted