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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Past tenses action vs nonaction
action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past(Me sentía triste porque mi mejor amiga se casaba ese fin de semana/ Esa noche iba a cenar con mis amigos). Non-action verb is imperfect except: change(Estaba en una fiesta cuando llamaste), time limitation(Estuvimos en esa fiesta unas tres horas), event(Mi madre tuvo mi hermano)
Past-tense beginning-middle-end
preterite is beginning or end, imperfect is the middle
Perfect tenses
are used to focus on the completion of an action in relation to a moment, present or past
Present perfect indicative: He regresado
refers to completed events in relation to the present.
Future perfect- hambremos terminado para las cinco
refers to a future event that will have been completed by a specific time or after another event in the future
Past perfect- Ya había…
refers to an event prior to another one in the past
Conditional perfect- habrían terminado
refers to an event that is the future in relation to another event in the past, also referring to an action in the past prior to another one in the past. (Por qué piensas que esa estudiante se aburría en clase el semester pasado?- No sé. Ya habría leído los mismos libros para otra clase)
Present perfect subjunctive- haya llegado
describes an event that is completed in relation to the present ( Me sorprende que haya llegado tarde)
Pluperfect subjunctive- hubiera cenado
describes an event the was completed before another in the past.
Simple progressive-Vamos
used to express an ongoing action
Present progressive-estoy trabajando
refers to ongoing actions in the present, never referring to the future
Past progressive- estaba trabajando
ongoing or finished action in the past, never as a future of the past.
Conditionalk present progressive- Celia me dijo que el proxima día, estaría cenando a las seis
refers to an ongoing action that is the future in the past, or probability for an ongoing action in the past (maybe she was sleeping)
Subjunctive present progressive- estén comiendo
an ongoing action in the present colored by the subjunctive
Subjunctive imperfect progressive- No podia creer que estuvieran peleando todavía.
refers to an ongoing action in the past colored by the subjunctive
Probability in the preterite or present perfect
- use future perfect- habrá ido al cine(I guess he went to the movies)
Imperfect probability of the past-He probably was at the movies
Estaría en el cine.
Probability-verbs of action-he was probably bathing
Estaría bañándose.
Probability-pluperfect-He must have gone out early
Habría salido temprano.
Subjunctive – independent clauses
phrases introduced by ojalá, quizá, and tal vez.
Nominal clause
behaves like a noun: Quiero pan or Quiero –que me ayudes-
Subjunctive-nominal clauses-definition
if the verb indicates fact or truth, the the subordinate clause is in the indicative- examples to see, to notice, to observe, to be clear, obvious, true. Anything else is subjunctive-ie: emotion, desire, approval, feeling, volition, influence, etc.
Subjunctive-parecer, creer, pensar
only subjunctive if there is doubt in the mind of the speaker or if parecer is followed by an adjective
siento que voy: I feel that I am going to /siento que estés – I am sorry that you…
Subjuntive-expressions of emotion-common
esperar, lamenter, sentir, temer, tener miedo (de que), alegrarse de, avergonzarse de, encantarle a uno, enojarle a uno, gustarle a uno, molestarle a uno, sorprenderle a uno
Subjunctive-expressions of volition
all use “que” alter:desear, empeñarse en, insistir en, necesitar, oponerse a, preferir, querer
Subjunctive- commons verbs of influence with direct object
all followed by “Que”:dejar*, hacer*, inviter a*, obligar a*- * means can just use infinitive sometimes
Subjunctive- verbs of influence with an indirect object
all use que: aconsejar, advertir, convencer, exigir, impedir*, mandar*, pedir, permitir*, persuadir a, prohibir*, recomendar*, rogar, sugerir- * means can just use infinitive sometimes
Subjunctive- expressions of doubt and negation of reality
all followed by que
Subjunctive-after impersonal expressions with ser
if it denotes anything but truth or reality(es verdad, es cierto, obvio, claro, ) possible, curioso, raro, difícil, una pena, etc.
Subjunctive- adjectival clauses- Tengo -una casa- que tiene dos pisos/Quiero -una casa- que tenga dos pisos
if the antecendent doesnt exist, use subjunctive
Subjunctive-lo que
use subjunctive if it means “whatever it might be”- Haré lo que me digas vs “what you told me, etc”don’t use sub.- Haré lo que me dijiste.
Subjunctive subordinate clauses-definition
if the action of the subordinate clause has not yet occured, use the sub
Subjunctive clauses- always take subjunctive
para que, a fin de que, a menos que, salvo que, a no ser que, antes de que, con tal de que, sin que, en caso de que- dont use “que” when the subject is the same : Vengo antes de salir
Clauses that sometimos are subjunctive
cuando, apenas, en cuanto, tan pronto como, aunque, a pesar de que, después de que, mientras, hasta que- dont use “que” when the subject is the same :
Subjunctive-subsecuent or simultaneous
present- Dudo que llueva mañana.
Subj- prior
present perfect /imperfect-Dudo que ya haya comido/Dudo que estuviera verde.
Subj- prior to another prior action-
pluperfect-Me sorprende que no hubiera llamado antes de venir.
Subj- past-subsecuent or simultaneous
imperfect – Dudaba que se acabara pronto la conferencia.
Subj- prior
pluperfect- Dudaba que hubiera dicho esa mentira.
imperfect-to know, preterite-to find out
imperfect-to know, preterite-to meet
imperfect-to be able,can/preterite-affirmative:to succeed, to be able, manage, negative:to fail
imp- to want, prêt- to attempt try/refuse to (didn’t want to)
imp-obligation not necessarily fulfilled, prêt-fulfilled obligation
acabar de-past
imp-to have just done something, prêt-to finish
Future progressive- estará cenando-
- refers to ongoing actions in the future or probability in the present (Qué hace Regina? Estará estudiando –must be studying)
Probability in the present
use future tense: Quién sera?