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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most planted grape variety in Spain?
Airen. Used for base wine for brandy prodduction.
What are "En cabeza", "En vaso", and "En cordon"?
Vine training techniques in Spain.

En cabeza- Used in Arid and Semi-Arid. Vine head low, leaves trained to shade grapes.

En vaso- Gobelet or bush. Used in Semi-Srid and Continental climates.

En cordon- Vines trained along wires, often to facilitate mech. harvesting. Used in Continental to Temperate.
Tempranillo synonyms
Cencibel, Tinto Fino, Tinto del Pais, Tinto del Toro, Ull de Llebre
Mazuelo synonyms
Carinena. (Carignan)
Monastrell synonym
Mourvedre (in France)
Name the notable soils in Jerez, Priorato, and Rioja.
Jerez- Albariza (chalk)
Priorato- Llicorella (brown schist)
Rioja- Alavesa (chalk)
List the three main districts of Rioja.
Rioja Alavesa- Smallest of the 3. Mostly calcareous clay, temperate climate. Often considered the best sub-region.

Rioja Alta- with Alavesa, some of the best Rioja. Clay soils.

Rioja Baja- Largest of the three; Garnacha dominates; wines full-bodied and alcoholic.
Literally "wine cellar", commonly used as part of the name of a wine firm
Midway between light red and dark rosado, synonymous with tintillo.
Means vintage, and indicates that a minimum of 85% of a wine is produced in the year marked
A fresh, fruity, "new" or nouveau style of wine, synonymous with nuevo and vino joven, and usually a vino de mesa
Criado Y Emtodellado Por
Blended and bottled by
A red crianza must be aged for a minimum of 2 years (of which at least 6 months must be in oak); a white or rosado crianza requires 1 year of aging (with at least 6 months in oak).
Denominacion de Origen (DO)
Wine that oriinates from a controlled-quality wine region
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
The highest official classification, above Denominacion de Origen
Doble Pasta
This term refers to red wines that have been macerated with double the normal proportion of grape skins to juice during fermentation. Such wines are opaque, with an intense color, and may be sold in the bottle or for blending.
Embotellado Por
Bottled by
A sparkling wine made by any method
A fortified or dessert wine
Gran Reserva
Red wines must be at least 5 years old, with a minimum of 18 months in oak. White and rosados must be at least 4 years old, with a minimum of 6 months in oak
A fresh, fruity, "new" or nouveau style wine, synonymous with cosechero and vino joven, and usually a vino de mesa.
Red wines must be at least 3 years old, with a minimum of 12 months in oak. Whites and rosados must be at least 2 years old, with a minimum 6 months in oak.
Sin Crianza
A wine without wood aging, including all cool-fermented, early-bottled white and most rosado wines. The term sin crianza is falling out of use, in favor of vino joven.
Midway between light red and dark rosado, synonymous with clarete.
Viña or Viñedo
Literally "vineyard,", but often merely part of a brand name, and nothing to do with a specific vineyard.
Vino Comarcal
A regional wine, above Vino de mesa and below Vino de la tierra
Vino de Aguja
A semisparkling, or petillant wine
Vino de Pasto
An ordinary, inexpensive, and often light style of wine.
Vino Joven
Wine made to be drunk within the year. There are moves to replace the term sin crianza with vino joven, but while wines in both categories must be made without any wood-aging, some sincrianza wines are made to age well in bottle, unlike vino joven
Vinum Optimum Rare Signatum or Very Old Rare Sherry (VORS)
Minimum age of 30 years.
Vinum Optimum Signatum, or Very Old Sherry (VOS)
Minimum age of 20 years.
Denominacion de Origen - DO Pago
Single estates of the highest international reputation that may or may not be a member of a formal DO.

-Dominio de Valdepusa, 2003, La Mancha
-Finca Élez, 2003, La Mancha
-El Guijoso, 2003, La Mancha
-Dehesa del Carrizal, 2006, La Mancha
-Arínzano, 2007, Navarra, Tierra Estella
-Prado Irache, 2007, Navarra, Tierra Estella
-Otazu, 2009, Navarra, Valdizarbe
Denominacion de Origen Calificada - DOCa
Comparable to the Italian DOCG. Rioja and Priorat are currently the only two wines with this status.
Denominacion de Origen - DO
The main quality wine classification in Spain. Equivalent to the French AOC.
Vinos de Calidad Con Indicacion Geografica - VCIG
Introduced in 2003, this is a 'quality wine with a geographical origin'. This level acts as a stepping stone to DO status. VCIG zones may apply for a promotion to DO status after 5 years. Equivalent to a French VDQS.
Vino de la Tierra - VdT
Literally ‘wine of the land’. Equivalent to the French Vin de Pays. Essentially a wine from an officially demarcated region.
Vino de Mesa - VdM
Table wine. Without additional qualification, this is a wine made from grapes grown in unclassified vineyards or blended. Usually brand named. Typically no regional name, varietal information, or vintage date.
Rioja DOCa
Northern Spain. Bilbao is the central town of Rioja. Other important cities include: Logrono, Haro, and Cinicero. 1925?: This was the first region in Spain to be demarcated. The name of the regulating body in Rioja is the Consejo Regulador. Ebro is the main river of Rioja.

There are two major climatic factors in Rioja: 1) The Ebro River moderates the climate, and 2) Sierra de Cantabria protects Rioja from the Atlantic rains. Reds from Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuela, Graciano. Note: Some individual wineries have special dispensation to use Cabernet Sauvignon (e.g. Marques de Riscal) on historical grounds. Whites from Viura, aka Macabéo, (95%) and Malvasía Riojana (5%), and the rare Garnacha Blanca. As of 2007, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, and Verdejo may be used, although none may be made as a varietal or combine for more than 49% of a blend. Wines typically aged in 225-liter barricas.

Subdistricts: Rioja Alta, Rioja Baja, Rioja Alavesa.
A syrup used for sweetening wine, made by boiling down and concentrating unfermented grape juice. Usually very sweet and used in Spain to sweeten wine – Malaga.
Consejo Regulador
Localized regulatory commission specific to a DO or DOCa region. This controlling body guarantees the classification of the wine. Every bottle of DO and DOCa bears a seal issued by the local Consejo Regulador.
Navarra DO
Overlaps part of the Rioja Baja region. Reds are typically Tempranillo, some Cabernet Sauvignon. 5 subzones:

-Baja Montana: Highest and wettest area. Mostly Tempranillo. Produces some of Navarra’s best rosés.
-Ribera Alta: Reds, rosés, and whites produced.
-Ribera Baja: Overlaps the Rioja Baja district. Mostly reds, some sweet moscatel.
-Tierra Estella: Straight-forward fruity reds and rosés.
-Valdizarbe: Smallest of the Navarra districts.
Castilla y León DOs
(9 + DO Pagos)
-Ribera del Duero
-Tierra de León
-Tierra del Vino de Zamora
-Valles de Benavente, VP
-Valtiendas, VP
Ribera del Duero DO
Northern central Spain. Northeast of Rueda, southwest of Rioja. Famous red wine area. Also produces some rosé. Original fame was due to Vega Sicilia. Demarcated in 1982. Extreme climate, with scorching summers and very cold winters. Tempranillo (aka Tinto Fino), Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Malbec, Merlot. Tinto Fino must make up 75% of the blend. All other grapes are classified as experimental, except for some old plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon and Garnacha at Vega Sicilia.
Rueda DO
Northern central Spain. Southwest of Ribera del Duero, just east of Toro, on the Duero River. White wines only. Traditionally known for Sherry-style wines from Viura. Now known for fresh, crisp, cold fermented dry whites from Verdejo.

DO status in 1980. Harsh Continental climate with a high altitude. Soils are sandy, chalky, alluvial, and gravel. Vines are bush-trained low, far apart. Varietals include Verdejo, some Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay, Viura, some Tempranillo; formerly, a lot of Palomino. Min 50% Verdejo. Often blended with Viura and/or Sauvignon Blanc. Pre-fermentation skin maceration, barrel fermentation, and barrel ageing are not uncommon.

Rueda Superior must contain at least 85% Verdejo.
Toro DO
Historically and currently known for full-bodied, powerful red wines made mostly from Tinta de Toro (Tempranillo) and Garnacha. West of Rueda, intersected by the Duero river.
Bierzo DO
Red, white, and rosado produced. Reds are the best, from a min. 70% Mencía grape. NW Spain, east of Rias Baixas.
Cigales DO
North of Rueda, west of Ribera del Duero. Best known for fresh, fruity, light reds and rosados.
Rioja Consejo Regulador Vintage Ratings
The Consejo Regulador classifies the quality of each vintage in five categories, from E (excellent) to VG, G, S (Standard), and A (Average). There has not been an ‘Average’ vintage since 1972, nor a ‘Standard’ one since 1984. Recent ‘Excellent’ vintages: 2005, 2004, 2001, 1995, 1994.
Castilla-La Mancha DOs
La Mancha DO
Valdepeñas DO
Almansa DO
La Mancha DO
Just off-center (south) in Spain. From the Moorish word Manxa, or ‘parched earth’. Largest region in Spain. Traditional source of base wine, from Airén, for brandy production. Mostly planted with Airén. Traditional source of base wine for brandy production.
Valdepeñas DO
Part of Castilla-La Mancha. Extension of La Mancha. Reputation for higher quality wines. Mostly reds. Best are from Cencibel (Tempranillo). Good examples are similar to Rioja.
Almansa DO
East of La Mancha DO and next to the Levante. Although there's a small amount of white wine made from Merseguera grapes, about 75% of wine produced is red, from Monastrell, Cencibel, and Garnacha Tintorera (Alicante Bouchet). Some Cabernet Sauvignon has also been planted.
Catalonia DOCas and DOs
Priorat DOCa
Costers del Segre DO
Penedès DO
Tarragona DO
Priorat DOCa
Northeast part of Spain, almost completely surrounded by Tarragona. The famous soil here is Llicorella, a poor, stony, volcanic and slate soil. Very little mechanization. Cariñena is the most planted and traditional variety. Priorat’s current reputation is being built on Garnacha-based wines. Some Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, and Pinot Noir.
Costers del Segre DO
In Catalonia. This DO was initially created to accommodate Raïmat (owned by Codorníu). Used to be an infertile salt plain. Took 50 years to make soils fit for vines. Varietal wines from Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pinot Noir. Excellent still and sparkling Chardonnay.
Penedès DO
Northeast Spain. Cava, some red production. Famous for quantity of Cava produced and Miguel Torres.
3 sub regions:

-Bajo Penedès: The coastal area and warmest area. Mostly reds: Monastrell, Garnacha, and Cariñena dominate.
-Medio Penedès: Middle, hilly section. Grapes grown at altitudes of 200 meters. Essentially Cava country, but home to some very good new style reds. Mostly Macabéo and Xarel-lo planted for Cava production, plus some reds from Tempranillo, Cab et al.
-Penedès Superior: AKA Alt Penedès. Furthest inland area. Higher altitudes of 500-800 meters. Mostly whites: Parellada, Riesling, and Gewurztraminer, some Pinot Noir.
Tarragona DO
70% of production is white wine, most of which is sold to Cava houses in Penedès.

Three sub regions:
-Campo de Tarragona
-Ribera d’Ebre

Increasing interest in red wines due to the success of Priorat. Many of these are fashioned in the same style as Priorat.
DOs of Aragón
-Campo de Borja
-Cariñena- Mostly for Garnacha-based reds. Some whites from Viura and Garnacha Blanca.
-Somontano- Blending of Tempranillo and Monastrell; Pinot Noir, Cabernet, and Merlot.
DOs of Galicia
-Monterrei DO
*Ladeira de Monterrei
*Val do Monterrei

-Rías Baixas DO
*Condado do Tea
*O Rosal
*Ribeira do Ulla
*Val do Salnés

-Ribeira Sacra DO
*Ribeiras do Miño
*Ribeiras do Sil

-Ribeiro DO

-Valdeorras DO
Rías Baixas DO
In Galicia, NW corner of Spain on the coast. Whites only from Albariño, Treixadura, Loureira, and Torrontes. Must be 100% Albariño if the word appears on the label. Sub regions:
-Ribeira do Ulla
-Val do Salnés
-Condado do Tea
-O Rosal
Ribeiro DO
In Galicia. Coastal, but just east of Rías Baixas. Wines similar to Portugal's Vinho Verde. Traditionally known for Palomino-based whites; Albariño, Treixadura, Loureira, and Torrontes are more interesting.
DOs of Murcia
Jumilla DO- Monastrell makes up 85% of vineyard plantings. Big, high-alcohol reds.

Yecla DO- A small region north of Jumilla.

Bullas DO
DOs of Valencia
Alicante DO- Once famous for a thick, rich aged wine called Fondillón, now very rare. Reds from Monastrell are most traditional, but int'l varieties showing promise.

Valencia DO- Best known DO of the Levante. East coast of Spain by the city of the same name. Reds from Monastrell; good Moscatel dessert wine.

Utiel-Requena DO- Famous for rosés from Bobal, but future looks bright for reds.
Málaga DO
In Andalucia, northeast of Jerez. Most of this dessert wine is matured by a six-scale solera system, and may be blended in a sherry-like manner using various grape-based coloring and sweetening agents, such as arrope, vino de color, vino tierno, and vino maestro. Málaga may be any one of the following:
-Dulce Color is dark, medium-bodied Málaga that has been sweetened with arrope.
-Lágrima is made from free-run juice only, and is the most luscious of all styles.
-Moscatel is a sweet, rich, raisiny, medium- to full-bodied wine similar to the Jerez version, only more luscious.
-Old Solera has the most finesse, depth and length, and is capable of great complexity. Still sweet but with a dry finish.
-Oscuro is a dark, sweet Málaga sweetened with arrope and colored by vino de color.
-Pajarette or Paxarete is darkish in color, and less sweet, but more alcoholic than other Málagas.
-Pedro Ximénez is smooth, sweet, deliciously rich varietal wine with an intense flavor similar to the Jerez version.
-Seco is a pale, dry, tangy wine with a distinctive creamy hazelnut character.
Binissalem DO
In the Balearic Islands. This DO owes its existence primarily to one man, José Ferrer, but there are at least two other producers of Majorca's best-known wine worth searching out.

Reds from minimum 50% Manto Negro. Minimum 70% Moll for whites. Callet, Monastrell, Parellada, Tempranillo, and Viura also allowed.
Central island of the Balearic Islands off the east coast of Spain. Binissalem DO and Pla I Llevant DO are on this island.
DOs of the Canary Islands
-Abona DO-White wines from Listán and Malvasia.
-El Hierro DO- Best reds and rosés from Negramoll, best whites from Verijadiego.
-La Palma DO- Famed for "Canary Sack" of Shakespeare's time from Malvasia. Also, an oddity made from Albillo is aged in pine casks called Vinos de Tea (Tea is the local name for a species of pine), but is not yet allowed the La Palma DO.
-Lanzarote DO
-Tacoronte-Acentejo DO
-Valle De Güímar DO
-Valle de la Orotava DO
-Ycoden-Daute-Isora DO
Districts of Penedès
-Bajo (or Baix) Penedès- The coastal strip, warmest of all three. Mostly full-bodied reds. Monastrell, Malvasia, Garnacha, Cariñena, and other mostly black grape varieties.
-Medio (or Mitja) Penedès- Middle section of the Penedès, slightly higher elevation, slightly cooler. Mostly Xarello and Macabéo, but also the best area for Tempranillo, Cab, Merlot, Monastrell.
-Alta (or Alt) Penedès- Also called Penedès Superior. Farthest inland, altitude 500-800 meters, and the coolest. Almost all white from mostly Parellada, plus Riesling, Gewurz, and Muscat.
Cava DO
The heartland of Cava is around Sant Sadurní d'Anoia in southern Barcelona province; makes 85% of all Cava. However, the regulated growing area includes 160 muncipalities in seven Spanish regions.

7 types of Cava, distinguished by level of sweetness. Each grape variety is fermented and vinified separately. Production is very modern. Coupage in December or January. This is followed by tirage (tiraje), licor de tiraje added. Must spend min 9 months of lees before degüelle (disgorgement). Next is removideo (remuage), and addition of licor de expedició before bottling. The base of the cork carries an identifying four-pointed star and the name Cava.
Rioja and Ribera del Duero Ageing Requirements
Crianza: Aged min. 2 years, min, at least 12 months of which is in cask.
Reserva: Aged min. 3 years, at least 12 months of which is in cask.
Gran Reserva: Aged min. 5 years, at least 24 months of which is in cask, and at least 36 months is in bottle.

Crianza: Min. 1 year, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Reserva: Min. 2 years, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Gran Reserva: Min. 4 years, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Standard DO and DOCa aging requirements
Vino Joven: No min. req.
Vino Roble: Aged less than 2 years, of which less than 6 months is in cask.
Crianza: Aged min. 2 years, min, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Reserva: Aged min. 3 years, at least 12 months of which is in cask.
Gran Reserva: Aged min. 5 years, at least 18 months of which is in cask.

Vino Joven: No min. aging.
Crianza: Min. 1 year, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Reserva: Min. 2 years, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
Gran Reserva: Min. 4 years, at least 6 months of which is in cask.
New Spanish aging requirements as of 2003:
To all wines except Vino de Mesa (VdT and above). Ages specified may be in max. 600 l. cask and/or bottle.

Noble: 18 months
Añejo: 24 months
Viejo: 36 months
Canary Islands
SW of Spain, and 60 miles from Morocco off the NW coast of Africa, a group of 7 islands, and an autonomous region of Spain. The islands are the remaining cones of long-extinct volcanoes. The highest point (and the highest in all of Spain's territories) is the Pico de Teide Mountains, located on Tenerife. It's 12, 195 ft. tall.
Chacolí de Vizcaya / Bizkaiko Txakolina DO
A DO in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country.

Main grapes are:
White-Ondarrabi Zuri
Red-Ondarrabi Beltza

And lesser quantities of Mune Mahatsa (Folle Blanche).
Navarre DOs
-Baja Montaña
-Ribera Alta
-Ribera Baja
-Tierra Estella
-Rioja (DOCa, 1991 [1st DO in 1925])
-Rioja Alavesa
-Rioja Alta
-Rioja Baja
-Arinzano, VP
-Otazu, VP
-Prado de Irache, VP