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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
envelope of gases surrounding our planet
- 21% of air
- supports respiration, burning, & oxidation
- discovered by Scheele & Priestly
- 78% of air
- dilutes oxygen in the air
- discovered by Rutherford
- inner atmosphere (lower 80 km)
- uniform mixture of gases
- outer atmosphere
- layers of different gases
- "weather layer"
- continual mixing of air
- lapse rate
- contrails
- rate at which temperature drops as altitude increases
- average = -6.4 degrees C. per kilometer
lapse rate
upper boundry of troposphere
- "stratified layer"
- cold bottom layer
- warmer upper layer (ozone warms it)
- free of clouds
- free of dust
- ozone layer
- jet streams
- weather balloons fly here
upper boundry of stratosphere
- high-speed meandering wind current
- in stratosphere
- usually flow from west to east
- altitudes of 15-25 km
- 400 km/hour
- planes use to save fuel
jet stream
vapor trail left by airplanes at high altitudes
To provide a nucleus for condensation that forms clouds
- "middle layer"
- homogeneous mixture of gases
- meteors usually burn up here
- strong winds that vary in direction
- temperature drops as altitude increases to a low of -90 degrees C. at top
- upper boundry of mesophere
- coldest temps in atmosphere
- Noctilucent or "night-shining clouds" = strange
- "warm layer"
- temp affected by sun
- thin air (fewer particles)
- auroras occur here
- upper boundary of thermosphere
- "outer layer"
- between atmosphere & outer space
- molecules can escape into space
- in stratosphere = good ozone
- made from ozone-oxygen cycle
- ozone molecules absorb UV light & convert it to thermal energy
ozone layer
an atom or molecule having a positive or negative charge
- part of thermosphere
- make long distance communication possible
- helpful to short-wave radio operators
- a large region surrounding earth's magnetic field
- prevents solar wind from hitting earth
- Van Allen Belts (inner & outer)
- magnetic storms from solar winds produce auroras
- beautifully colored lights near the North Pole
- caused by magnetic storms
aurora borealis
- beautifully colored lights near the South Pole
- caused by magnetic storms
aurora australis
The warming of the lower atmosphere by infrared radiation that is radiated by the earth's surface after it absorbs visible radiation from the sun.
greenhouse effect
Any of the gases present in the atmosphere that enhance the absorption of infrared radiation by the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor are the predominant naturally occurring greenouse gases.
greenhouse gas
The DIRECT transfer of thermal energy through a substance or from one object in physical contact (TOUCH) with another.
The INDIRECT transfer of thermal energy from one place to another by the MOVEMENTS of currents of cooler, more dense matter into regions of warmer, less dense matter. (warm air rises)
The study of the atmosphere.
The condition of the atmosphere at any given time.
The weight of gases. It decreases as altitude increases because of fewer molecules (less dense).
atmospheric pressure
An optical phenomenon that the atmosphere produces because of the differing densities of hot and cool air and the way light travels through them.
The TOTAL amount of water vapor that a certain volume of air holds.
absolute humidity
The RATIO of the amount of water the air DOES hold compared to the amount of water it CAN hold. It is a %.
relative humidity
A strong wind can lower the apparent temperature so it feels colder than it really is.
wind-chill factor
any form of water that falls to the earth's surface from the sky
Functions of Atmosphere?
- provides oxygen
- protects from meteors & cosmic rays
- maintains temperature
- provides pressure for proper body function
2 men that discovered oxygen
Priestly & Scheele
Discovered nitrogen
like or similar
separate or different
2 layers of ATMOSPHERE based on composition
- homosphere
- heterosphere
5 layers of ATMOSPHERE based on temperature
- (from earth's surface outward)
- troposphere
- stratosphere
- mesosphere
- thermosphere
- exosphere
Does the temperature increase or decrease in these layers of the atmosphere?
Troposphere - decrease
Stratosphere - increase
Mesosphere - decrease
Thermosphere - increase
Exosphere - who knows?
The homosphere includes what 3 temperature layers?
3 special layers of the atmosphere
- ozone layer (ozonosphere)
- ionosphere
- magnetosphere
Ozone Alert
- man-made & BAD
- found in troposphere
- pollution
- air is harmful to breathe
The measure of the sun's energy that reaches the earth. This is the energy that is not reflected by the clouds or absorbed by the air.
solar constant
A significant increase in the overall temperature of the earth in a relatively short period of time.
global warming
Effects of global warming
- rise in sea level from melting snow and glaciers
- changes in seasons
- changes in ecosystems
Carbon Dioxide - man-made sources:
- burning fossil fuels
- deforestation
- waste incineration
Methane (produced by decomposition of organic matter) - man-made sources:
- raising livestock
- coal mining & drilling for oil & gas
- rice cultivation
- disposing of gargage in landfills
- burning forests & fields
Nitrous Oxide - man-made sources:
- fertilizers
- sewage
Weather is affected by what 5 factors?
- temperature
- atmospheric pressure
- humidity
- wind speed and direction
- precipitaion
the average weather over a LONG period of time
Temperature is affected by what 5 conditions?
- distance from the sea
- ocean currents
- direction of prevailing winds
- altitude
- distance from the equator
When does water boil?
when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
So, water boils faster at higher altitude because of less atmospheric pressure.
Why does a hot air balloon rise?
As temperature increases, density and weight of the air inside the balloon decreases.