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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What three things make Human Language species-specific and species-uniform?
Productivity--arrange unique utterances with meaning
Semanticity--language carries message symbolically
Displacement--talk about anything, anytime, anywhere
Describe the Ethological view on language acquisition (Locke, 1996)
Must have interaction between the organism and the environment
Describe the neuroethological view on language acquisition
Neural structures that allow the interaction between the organism and the environment (form synapses in the brain)
Describe Broca's Area
--speech production, frontal lobe
--controls MOTOR aspects of speech
--damage here results in loss of function words (content words often remain)
Describe Wernicke's Area
--speech comprehension, temporal lobe
--damage here causes neologisms, though words are produced just fine
Describe the Arcuate Fasiculous
--bundle of subcortical fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's
--Damage here affects all aspects of language (conductive aphasia), inability to repeat words
Characteristics for Species-Specific language
-onset of language is regular
-speech is not surpressable
-language cannot be taught to other species
-language has certain universals (phonology, syntax, semantics)
Define Linguistic Comptence
knowledge of syntactic structure of language
Define linguistic performance
ability to express the rules of language in everyday speech
define comminucative competence
knowledge of all subsystems of the language
Name the 5 language subsystems
phonology--sound systems, rules of how to comine them into words/prosodic patterns
syntax--word order
semantics--word meanings
pragmatics--language use in social contexts
Name the 4 principles of successful communication in conversation
Quantity: say as much as needed (no more or less)
Quality: truth/validity of statement
Relevence: saying only what is important
Manner: taking turns, maintain sequence of what you mean to say
Describe some early language development studies
Egyptian--two children, find first word (prove first language)
Child Diaries--parents record observations of their own children
Describe some neonatal research methods
sucking technique, head turn paradigm, preferential looking paradigm
What is CHILDES?
program designed in the 80s to transcribe recorded sessions for research and therepy
Describe the responses to speec/sounds in
1-2 mos
8-12 mos
N: noise startles, turns head towards sound, calmed by voice (prefers mom), discriminates speech sounds
1-2: smiles when spoken to
3-7: responds to different intonation
8-12: responds to name/"no," recognizes game phrases/routine words/certain words
Criteria for intentional communication
--eye contact w/partner, gaze coupling
--consistant gestures/vocalizations
--turn taking (pausing after gest/vocal)
--persistant attempts (try another gest/voc if first didn't work)
describe imperitive and declarative early communication behaviors
I: reject and request (push away food, reach for toy and grasp fingers
D: comment (show item to caregiver, direct attention of others to object)
what denotes a proto-word?
phonetically consistant form of sounds that always refer to the same thing ("ni!" meaning yes, "zoo-zoo" for car, etc)
What characterizes child directed speech?
--more variable intonation
--higher pitched
--more emphasis on certain words, create a certain prosody
Factors for the emergence of communication in infants
-biology: maturation of CNS and PNS
-nonlinguistic congitive development
-nurture (types of experiences that child has with caregiver)
Differences between Prenatal and Neonatal communication
P: (last trimester inutero) recognize stories read at this time, processes sounds of mother tongue, differentiate speech/music
N: recognizes mom's voice, prefers native tongue, recognizes patterns of native lang
Three language patterns
Stress timed: strong/weak syllables
Syllable timed: equal stress, more constant rythm
Mora timed: heavy and light syllables within word
Cues to rely on for segmentation of words/phrases/sentences
--distributional regularity
--phonotactics: rules for combination
--requencies of patterns across words
--differences in prosodic boundries
Features of Vowel Production
-vocal cords are unobstructed
-sound depends on placement of articulators
-front/back/central, close/open
-lip rounding
Features of Consonant production
-acoustic and articulatory characteristics
-place, manner, voicing
Major sound classes of Manner of articulation
-stops (p, b, t, d, k, g)
-fricatives (s, f, v, z, sh, je)
-afficates/obstruents (ch, dge)
-glides (j, w)
-liquids (l, r)
-nasals (m, n, NG)
-glottals (h)
Major PLACES of articulation
-bilabial (b, p)
-labiodental (v, f)
-dental (th)
-alveolar (t d, n, s, z, l)
-palatal (sh, je, ch, dge, j, r)
-velar (g k ng)
-glottal (h)
Minimal Pair
phone: speech sound
phoneme: smallest unit of sound that changes meaning
Min. Pair: two words that differ by changing one phoneme (zip/sip, bat/pat)
Phonotactics: patterns of phonemes possible in a language
Universal stages of vocalization
0-2mos: refelxive
2-4: cooing, laughing, gargling
4-6: vocal play, raspberries, sustain sounds
6+: cannonical babbling (deaf stop here)
10+ jargon
describe the Discontinuation theory of babbling and speech
R Jacobson, 1968
babies stop babbling before th onset of words
describe the continuation factor of connecting babbling and speech
babies have a vocal motor schema of how to produce sounds, so when they can physically make the sound they know how it will sound
describe the Nativist theory of Phonological Development
R Jacobson, 1968
-inate ability to develop speech
-late acquiring sounds that are rarer in language
-learn distinct phonetic contrasts before minimal pairs
-learn nasal, labial, and velars first
describe the Behavioral Approach to phonological development
-babies begin to acquire most common phonemes of language first
-assumes external reward system of learning
Points against nativist/behavioral approaches to Phonological Development
-->babble is velar and glottal, not nasal
-->regression: must stop skill for brain to process what you've learned--internalizes speech skills
-->progressive phonological idiom theory: some words are acquired in adult form
Describe the Cognitive approach to Phonological Development
-trial and error approach
-avoidance of sounds they can't do
-familiar sounds in different combos
-one word at a time
-internal rewards of learning more words
Early preferences for phonological patterns
-stops (for consonants)
-short vowels
-CV organization
-cluster reduction

M: smallest meaningful unit of sound

A: variation in pronunciation of the same shape morpheme depending on other sounds (ie bees (z) vs. cats (s)
Descibe Deletion as a phonological process
-final consonant
-unstressed syllable
-cluster reduction
describe assimilation as a phonological process
-regressive VC (vowel nasalization
-back assimilation (dog->gog)
Describe aproximants as a phonological process
-glides into plosives (yellow->yeddow)
Describe sound deletion as a phonological process
-delete liquids and other difficult sounds (balloon->ba_oon)
Describe epenthesis as a phonological process
-add a vowel to keep CV pattern
What does it mean for a word to be a referant?
-word is a sign for object or action
-common to any language
-symbollic, arbitrary sounds
What are onomatopeic words?
-words that sound like the sound something makes
(choo choo for train, meow, thud, etc)
What is Folk Etymology?
-natural connectedness between words and referents (bedroom = a room with a bed, etc)
What are some biological/environmental/sociocultural influences on word learning?
-girls (western) produce words earlier than boys
-corrolation between maternal IQ and infant language production
-maternal SES
-parental input is important
Common types of first words
-nouns constitute most of vocabulary
-common verbs
-"direction words:" up, down, etc
-some adjectives (hot, dirty,)
-descriptions: allgone, more, uh-oh
-social routine: bye bye, hi, etc
Describe the Semantic Feature hypothesis of concept forming
-learning to distinguish features that are present and percieveable (sice, shape, movement...)
->can account for over/undergeneralization
->cannot account for determining the most relevant features and acquisition of nonobject concepts
Describe the Functional Core hypothesis of concept forming
-object/use connection is the most important
-naming is easeier for things that children can manipulate/be involved with
->cannot explain how children connect shared features and OTHER functions (ball and cookie are round, different functions)
Describe the Associative theory of concept forming
-Concept is extended with each successive use of the word
describe the Prototype theory of concept forming
-children acquire meaning for the most common objects within the category
--probabalistic concept
--classical concept
describe the mutual exclusivity lexical constraint
only one word can go with one object/action
describe the fast mappin lexical constraint
name mapped onto something that child does not have a name for yet (ie bring me the chromium tray...not the blue one)
describe the whole object lexical constraint
naming an object goes to whole object, not just parts (ie doggy = whole dog, not just ears or paws or fur)
describe the taxonomic lexical constraint
naming objects all together name them in one category
some other possible lexical constraints
-social: how much attention paid to different parts of language
-content vs function words
-principle of contrast (big v small, etc)
Details of vocab growth after first 150 words
-explosive, nonlinear
-helped by overall cognitive development
-object/name realization
-storage and retrieval: semantic networks
-comprehension ahead of production
Principles for inventing new words
-simplicity: use conventional words to make new ones (ie stove is a cooker, being haved = behaving)
-semantic transparancy: gardener = plant man, chef = cook man
-productivity: use morphemes by rules (more good->gooder)
define "joint attention"
situation in which two individuals are paying attention to the same thing at the same time, as in reading a book together
Describe deictic terms
-words where referant changes depending on the speaker (I, you, this, that)
-hard for kids to understand
What is Metalinguistic awareness?
knowledge of the nature of language as an object