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115 Cards in this Set

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earliest scientific evidence of grapes

How old / What
60 million year old fossil vines
earliest written account of viniculture
Old Testament of the Bible.
planted a vineyard to make wine according to the Bible
Noah
Bacchus
the "lamented one"
Bakhah
"to weep" or "lament"
Roman God of wine
Bacchus
Greek God of wine
Dionysus
What country developed the first arbors and pruning methods
Egypt
Year wine came to Europe
1600 B.C.
What country learned to add herbs, pine resin, and spices to mask spoilage?
Greece
1000 B.C. __________ classified grape varieties and colors, charting, ripening characteristics, identifying diseases and recognizing soil-type preferences
Romans
What country developed wooden cooperage for wine storage which had previously been done in skins or jars
Romans
what style of wine became popular in England at the end of the Hundred Years war 1453
Port
in 1152, during the reign of Henry II, Britain had become the principal customer of what country?
Bordeaux
Who ordered the planting of grapes in Mexico in 1525
Hernando Cortez
the "Father of California Wine"

who
Father Junipero Serra
Imported European wine vines to Los Angeles in 1833

who
Jean-Louis Vignes
imported cuttings from 165 of the greatest European vineyards to California in the 1850's and 60's
Agoston Harazsthy
considered the Founder of the California Wine Industry
Agoston Harazsthy
Founded Buena Vista winery
Agoston Harazsthy
proposed and proved in 1857 that wine is made of microscopic organisms, yeasts.
Louia Pasteur
year written records for formal instruction for viniculture
1860
year phylloxera vastatrix was introduced
1863
attacks and feeds on the vine roots and leaves
phylloxera vastatrix
__________ varieties developed resistance to phylloxera by evolving a thick and tough root bark, so they were relatively immune to the damage.

country
Native America
suggested grafting the vinifera vines onto riparia hybrid rootstocks.
Thomas Munson
small insect brought over when American vines were shipped to Europe for planting
phylloxera
during aphid stage, insect lives off of the sap in the roots
phylloxera
injects its waste back into the plant (poisonous to root structure)
phylloxera
can be countered through grafting American rootstock on to desired vine
phylloxera
also called noble rot
botrytis cinerea
attacks grapes and causes them to shrivel
botrytis cinerea
prefers thin skin grapes, good humidity, and tightly packed bunches of grapes
botrytis cinerea
prefers cool, foggy mornings followed by warm afternoons
botrytus cinerea
mutation of noble rot
grey rot
will render a harvest unusable
grey rot
used to add sulfur
camden tablets
a solid form of potassium metabisulfite
camden tablets
when one talks about sulfur dioxide, one is referring to __________
sulfite ion
unwanted sulfur in wine
hydrogen sulfide (sulfide)
the word "sulfur"or "to sulfur" could mean the treatment of the grapevines with what
elemental (sulfur) dusting as a fungicide

OR

the winemaker added sulfur dioxide to the wine

OR

it could mean the wine has a "reduced" h2s character and smells like rotten eggs, cooked cabbage or sewer gas
what state became the first entirely "dry" state in 1880
Kansas
Production of wine dropped _____ percent from 1919 to 1925
94%
What prompted the government to permit Dry states and counties?
Alcohol abuse and alcoholism and their related problems were much more widespread and affected a radically larger share of America's population in the early and mid-1800s than they do at present day.
What steps were made to promote Dry states?
-any mention of wine expunged from school and college texts, including Greek and Roman classic literature.

-Medicinal wines were dropped from the United States Pharmacopoeia.

- tried to prove that praises for wine in the Bible were actually referring to unfermented grape juice.
Enacted in 1919
wartime prohibition
forbids the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors."
Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920
The loophole of the 18th Amendment was:
allowing each home to "make 200 gallons of non-intoxicating cider and fruit juice per year,"
Although some wineries managed to survive by obtaining permits to make wines used for
medicinal, sacramental and non-beverage additive purposes
Kansas stayed dry until

what year
1948
Today, ____ percent of the nation's area remains dry
10%
What year did table wine sales overtake fortified wine sales
1968
1976, the world of wine was shocked when two Napa Valley wines

which wines?
Stag's Leap 1973 Cabernet Sauvignon and Chateau Montelena 1975 Chardonnay
a blind tasting judged entirely by Frenchmen
Judgment of Paris
it is virtually impossible to make excellent wine from
below-standard grapes
In general, the best wines come from environments whose
-temperate climates insure a long growing season and full physiological maturity of the grapes

-Grapes grown on well-drained, less fertile, hillside soils often possess greater aromatic and flavor intensity than those cultivated in more fertile, valley-floor soils.
The objective of vine (canopy) management is to
create a balance between the vine’s vegetative growth and its fruit development
Virtually all wine grape types have
multiple clones – mutations that produce characteristics differing from the original.
The best wines are produced from vineyards yielding
five tons per acre or less, although, with the advent of closer vine spacing, which forces vines to compete for water and nutrients, a more reliable measure is probably pounds of fruit per vine, with less than 10 lbs/vine being a standard for fine wine production.
How many pounds of fruit per vine is standard for fine wine production
10 lbs.
around 24 Brix result _____ alcohol %
14
The process of making wine
Vinification
White Wine -picked, press _______ fermentation, then aged.
before
Red Wine -picked, press ________ fermentation, then aged.
after
addition of sugar if needed, does not make wine sweeter
chaptalization
reduce acid by adding
chalk or amelioration (sugar syrup)
high acidity equals
low pH
aged with yeast still in barrel
sur lie
stirring of the dead yeasts
batonage
the yeast to impart flavor and characteristics to the wine
lees
"bouquet" or "nose" and "flavor" improve through a process called
autolysis
the wine develops complexities from the decaying yeast cells.
autolysis
Removal of fine particles
fining
Can be done through the addition of egg whites
fining
Also through centrifuge, or clay
fining
* run through destemmer/crusher
* all crush fermented
* color from pigmentation in skins dissolved in alcohol
Fermentation Process
* Produces a lighter, easier drinking wine
* Unbroken red grapes placed into container with Carbon
Carbonic Maceration
* 15% on bottom ferment naturally
* Remaining grapes have fermentation inside their skins
* Lack of oxygen converts metabolism to convert sugars (no yeast)
* No physical movement of grapes for tannin or color extraction
dioxide
tend to be dry due to low residual sugar levels
red wine
most aged minimum of three years
red wine
* Taking any still wine and pumping in carbon dioxide
* Bottled under pressure ("bycicle pump method")
* Cheaper immitations (Baby Duck)
carbonation method of sparkling wines
* Tank based system
* Must undergoes first fermentation
* All wine then placed into a large tank, sugar and yeast added
* Secondary fermentation allowed in the sealed tank
* Wine deep-chilled, filtered and transferred to secondary tank via centrifuge
* "Liqueur d’expedition" added and bottled
Charmat Method
* Similar to Methode Champenoise
* Wine undergoes secondary fermentation in the bottle
* All wine disgorged and placed into a secondary tank under pressure
* Wine is filtered to remove sediment and rebottled
transfer method
* Riddling (Remuage)
* Disgorgement
* "Liqueur d’expedition" -Sugar solution and SO2 added to wine after disgorgement
* Consists of sugar and wine mixed to precise levels
* Determines final sugar levels in the bottle, wine sent on its ‘journey’
Methode Champenoise
Three ways to make____________
* Blending of a white and red wine after fermentation is completed
* Bleeding- Fermentation with the grapes skins is started
20% of the juice is removed after some color is leeched from the skins
This juice is then fermented
rose
When you swirl wine in a glass and sniff it, the volatile essences of the wine are carried by thousands of nerve endings in your nasal cavity to the ___________ in your brain.
olfactory bulb
in the back of the mouth, when you sip and swallow wine, thousands of nerve endings are carried to the brain by ________
retronatal passage
Swirling volatilizes the wine's aromas and sniffing draws them into the ___________which "interprets" them -- i.e., compares them to other familiar smells.
olfactory bulb
because a wine consists of over _____ different chemical compounds, many of which are identical or similar to those found in fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and other substances.
300
The primary grape smells of a wine, distinct by variety, make up its ______
aroma
secondary characteristics, caused by factors such as fermentation and oak and bottle aging, blend with its fruit smells to form the wine's _______.
bouquet
How many aromatics in wine ?
200-800 (some say thousands)
all available odors reach receptors during normal breathing, only 2% actually gets through the nose to reach the __________
‘sensory patch’
Remember to smell anything, it must be in a
gaseous state to reach our receptor cells, dissolved in the mucous lining and stimulate nerve endings,
difference in smelling an odor is between, in order to smell, we must breathe in more than normal
exposure from the air and exposure from a liquid (wine glass design)
humans than have the ability to detect _________ different odors
10,000
Changes the relative volume of wine versus the volume of air in the glass
swirling
Increase the surface area of the wine
swirling
Reduce the surface tension of the wine
swirling
four tastes humans can perceive
sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.
sweetness on the
tip of the tongue
with acidity and bitterness on the
sides and to the rear of the tongue
the higher the alcohol, the __________the wine
weightier
evaporation of alcohol on the sides of the glass while standing
Marangoni effect
_____alcohol wines sheet off very quickly
low
__________ alcohol is like pancake syrup
high
Natural cork fails on average ____ times per______ bottles
3 per 100
Wine makers lose app. ______ per year from bad corks
$100 million
Must odor/ rotting newspapers/ bird feces
Corked Wines (TCA) Trichloroanisole
(TCA) Trichloroanisole
corked
sometimes called fumé blanc
sauvignon blanc
scents of grapefruit, lime, green melon, gooseberry, passion fruit, freshly mown grass, and bell pepper.
sauvignon blanc
in warmer regions, the melon, citrus and passion fruit aromas and flavors emerge in what grape?
sauvignon blanc
Grown in cooler climates and in fertile soils promoting excessive vine growth, herbaceous smells and flavors can dominate the character of
sauvignon blanc
Malolactic fermentation is rare, and barrel-aging usually is limited to a few months’ duration in this grape
sauvignon blanc