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93 Cards in this Set

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somatosensory pathways convey information on touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and ___________
PROPRIOCEPTION (limb or joint position sense)
there are two main somatosensory pathways: the ____ _____ pathway and the __________ pathways
there are two main somatosensory pathways: the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathway and the ANTEROLATERAL pathways
the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathway is located in the _______ ______.
posterior column
the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathway conveys information on _______, ________, and ______/______ touch
the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathway conveys information on PROPRIOCEPTION, VIBRATION, and FINE/DISCRIMINATIVE TOUCH
the ___________ pathways include the ________ tract and other associated tracts. they convey information on ________, _____, and ______ ______
the ANTEROLATERAL pathways include the SPINOTHALAMIC tract and other associated tracts. they convey information on PAIN, TEMPERATURE, and CRUDE TOUCH.
while some types of sensory information are discrete to the _______ ______ __________ or the _______ __________, others are carried by both. therefore, lesions in either do not eliminate that type of sensory information.
while some types of sensory information are discrete to the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL PATHWAY or the ANTEROLATERAL PATHWAYS, others are carried by both. therefore, lesions in either do not eliminate that type of sensory information.
DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA are composed of neuron ______ ______.
CELL BODIES
DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA have stem axons that are _________
BIFURCATED
axons from the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA _________, with information from one branch traveling to the ________, while the other delivers information to the ______ ______
axons from the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA BIFURCATE, with information from one branch traveling to the PERIPHERY, while the other delivers information to the SPINAL CORD
a peripheral region innervated by sensory fibers from a single nerve root level is called a ________
DERMATOME
_______________ for different spinal levels form a map over the surface of the body
DERMATOMES
Info. on proprioception, vibration, and fine/discriminative touch is conveyed by the [ ] pathway(s).
MEDIAL LEMNISCAL PATHWAY.
The medial lemniscal pathway is contained within the _______ ________.
POSTERIOR COLUMN
Traveling superiorly, information on proprioception, vibration, and fine/discriminative touch follows the [ ] pathway(s) in the ______ ______. The pathway decussates in the ________; then travels through the ________; it subsequently moves through the _____ ______ of the internal _____, and finally synapses in the _________ _______ cortex
Traveling superiorly, information on proprioception, vibration, and fine/discriminative touch follows the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathway in the POSTERIOR COLUMN. The pathway decussates in the MEDULLA; then travels through the THALAMUS; it subsequently moves through the POSTERIOR LIMB of the internal CAPSULE, and finally synapses in the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY cortex
In the medial lemniscal pathway, many axons enter the [ipsi-/contra-]lateral _______ ________s and ascend to the __________ _________ nuclei in the medulla.
In the medial lemniscal pathway, many axons enter the IPSILATERAL POSTERIOR COLUMNS and ascend to the POSTERIOR COLUMN NUCLEI in the medulla.
Adjacent regions on sensory (and motor)cortex correspond to adjacent areas on the body surface. This is referred to as __________ _____________.
Adjacent regions on sensory (and motor)cortex correspond to adjacent areas on the body surface. This is referred to as SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION.
Like the cortex, the medial lemniscal pathway and anterolateral pathways are _________ organized. As the medial lemniscal pathway ascends, information in the _________ column adds on _________.
Like the cortex, the medial lemniscal pathway and anterolateral pathways are SOMATOTOPICALLY organized. As the medial lemniscal pathway ascends, information in the POSTERIOR column adds on LATERALLY.
Name the areas of the posterior columns that contain the following information: information from the legs and lower trunk: _____ _________; from the upper trunk to about T6 and the arms/neck: ______ _________.
The areas of the posterior columns that contain information from the legs and lower trunk: GRACILE FASCICULUS; from the upper trunk to about T6 and the arms/neck: CUNEATE FASCICULUS.
The GRACILE FASCICULUS and CUNEATE FASCICULUS are located in the ______ ________. They convey the following type of sensory information from different areas of the body: __________, _________, and ______/_______ touch.
The GRACILE FASCICULUS and CUNEATE FASCICULUS are located in the POSTERIOR COLUMNS. They convey the following type of sensory information from different areas of the body: PROPRIOCEPTION, VIBRATION,and FINE/DISCRIMINATIVE touch.
In the posterior columns, first order sensory neurons that have axons in the ________ _________ and __________ __________ synapse in the _____ _________ and _____ _________ respectively.
In the posterior columns, first order sensory neurons that have axons in the GRACILE FASCICULUS and CUNEATE FASCICULUS synapse in the NUCLEUS GRACILIS and NUCLEUS CUNEATUS respectively.
In the medial lemniscal pathway, axons of the second-order neurons ______ in the medulla as _________ ________ fibers. They form the ________ ___________ on the other side of the medulla.
In the medial lemniscal pathway, axons of the second-order neurons DECUSSATE in the medulla as INTERNAL ARCUATE fibers. They form the MEDIAL LEMNISCUS on the other side of the medulla.
Medial lemniscus neurons terminate in the _____(3 words) nucleus of the thalamus.
Medial lemniscus neurons terminate in the VENTRAL POSTERIOR LATERAL (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus.
Neurons of the VPL project through the _______ limb of the _______ _______.
Neurons of the VPL project through the POSTERIOR limb of the INTERIOR CAPSULE.
Neurons of the VPL project through the posterior capsule in a form known as these: [3 words-- think of their immediate origin and destination].
Neurons of the VPL project through the posterior capsule in a form known as THALAMIC SOMATOSENSORY RADIATIONS.
Neurons of the VPL project through the posterior capsule in a form known as THALAMIC SOMATOSENSORY RADIATIONS. The neurons ultimately synapse at the _____ ______ ______.
Neurons of the VPL project through the posterior capsule in a form known as THALAMIC SOMATOSENSORY RADIATIONS. The neurons ultimately synapse at the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX.
The spinothalamic tract & other anterolateral pathways also enter the cord via the dorsal root entry zone. However, they first synapse immediately in cord gray matter, mainly in the dorsal horn _______ zone (lamina _____) and deeper in the dorsal horn (lamina ______)
The spinothalamic tract & other anterolateral pathways synapse immediately in cord gray matter, mainly in the dorsal horn MARGINAL zone (lamina I)and deeper in the dorsal horn (lamina V).
Within the spinothalamic tract, some axon collaterals ascend/descend a few segmments in _______ ________ before they enter the central gray.
Lissauer's tract
2nd-order central gray sensory neurons cross over in the spinal cord _____ ________ to ascend anterolateral white matter.
anterior (or ventral) commissure
It takes ( ) spinal segment(s) for decussating spinothalamic tract fibers to reach the opposite side.
2-3
Lateral cord lesions affect contralateral pain/temperature where?
A few segments below the site of the lesion.
Somatotopic organization in the spinothalamic tract: which area is most laterally represented?
the feet
Moving superiorly, spinothalamic fibers are relayed through the _______, and are projected via (3 words) to the ______ _______ cortex.
Moving superiorly, spinothalamic fibers are relayed through the THALAMUS and are projected via THALAMIC SOMATOSENSORY RADIATIONS to the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY cortex. [As is the case with the medial lemniscal pathway].
The spinothalamic tract is accompanied by 2 others: the _____ and the ____ tracts.
Spinoreticular and spinomesencephalic.
The spinothalamic tract provides information on discriminative _____ and ____; its main relay is in the [4 words]aka the (abbrev.); projections also extend to other ______ ______.
The spinothalamic tract provides information on discriminative PAIN and TOUCH (e.g., location and intensity); its main relay is in the VENTRAL POSTERIOR LATERAL NUCLEUS aka the VPL; projections also extend to other THALAMIC NUCLEI.
The _______ tract provides information on emotional and arousal aspects of pain; it terminates in the ______-_______ reticular formation which project to ______ nuclei; these project ______ to the cortex and may be involved in behavioral ______.
The SPINORETICULAR tract provides information on emotional and arousal aspects of pain; it terminates in the MEDULARRY-PONTINE reticular formation which project to THALAMIC nuclei; fibers then project DIFFUSELY to the cortex and may be involved in behavioral AROUSAL.
The __________ tract is involved with pain ________; it projects to the midbrain _______ _________ matter and to the s________ _________.
The SPINOMESENCEPHALIC tract is involved with pain MODULATION; it projects to the midbrain PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY matter and to the SUPERIOR COLLICULI.
The primary somatasensory cortex is located in the _____ ______, and is associated with the following Brodmann's Areas (BA's):
The primary somatasensory cortex is located in the POSTCENTRAL GYRUS, and is associated with the following Brodmann's Areas: 3, 1, 2.
The following thalamic nuclei relay somatosensory info the the primary somatosensory cortex, which is associated with BA's __, __, and __:
the ____ and ____ nuclei.
The VPL and VPM (ventral posterior lateral and medial) thalamic nuclei relay somatosensory info the the primary somatosensory cortex, which is associated with BA's 3,1, and 2.
In the _______ organization of the somatosensory cortex, the face is represented most _____ly and the leg most _______ly.
In the SOMATOTOPIC organization of the somatosensory cortex, the face is represented most LATERALLY and the leg most MEDIALLY.
The primary somatosensory cortex conveys info to the secondary somatosensory association cortex in the p______ ________ (located at the superior margin of the ______ f_______).
The primary somatosensory cortex conveys info to the secondary somatosensory association cortex in the PARIETAL OPERCULUM(located at the superior margin of the SYLVIAN fissure).
Additional processing of somatosensory information in the cortex occurs in the p_______ ________ lobule, which includes BA's ___ and ___.
Additional processing of somatosensory information in the cortex occurs in the POSTERIOR PARIETAL lobule, which includes BA's 5 and 7.
Lesions in the primary sensory cortex may result in ____ _____ _______.
Lesions in the primary sensory cortex may result in CORTICAL SENSORY LOSS.
The _____ is considered the major relay station of sensory information.
thalamus
Thalamic nuclei receive dense reciprocal feedback connections from _______ areas. ______ _______ projections outnumber _______ projections.
Thalamic nuclei receive dense reciprocal feedback connections from CORTICAL areas. CORTICAL THALAMIC projections outnumber THALAMOCORTICAL projections.
The thalamus is divided into medial, lateral and anterior nuclear groups by internal _____ _________.
The thalamus is divided into medial, lateral and anterior nuclear groups by internal MEDULLARY LAMINA.
The internal medullary lamina are ____ shaped and are composed of ____ ______.
The internal medullary lamina are Y-shaped and are composed of WHITE MATTER.
The midline thalamic nuclei are adjacent to the _____ ________. The lateral aspect of the thalamus is called the ________ ________ ________.
The midline thalamic nuclei are adjacent to the THIRD VENTRICLE. The lateral aspect of the thalamus is called the THALAMIC RETICULAR NUCLEUS.
Name 3 categories of nuclei in the thalamus: ________ nuclei, _________ nuclei, and the _________ nucleus
Relay nuclei, intralaminar nuclei, and the reticular nucleus
_________ nuclei make up most of the thalamus. Those of the lateral aspect include the VPL, VPM, __________ (LGN), _______________(MGN), and __________ (VL).
RELAY nuclei make up most of the thalamus. Those of the lateral aspect include the VPL, VPM, LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS(LGN), MEDIAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS (MGN), and VENTRAL LATERAL NUCLEUS(VL).
All sensory functions except for __________ have specific relays in the thalamus.
All sensory functions except for OLFACTION have specific relays in the thalamus.
Name the relay nuclei: the ________nucleus is tied to vision, the ______ nucleus to auditory fxs, and the _______ nucleus to motor fxs with cerebellum/basal ganglia connections. As previously reviewed, the _____ and ______ relay information on _____.
Name the sensory functions: the LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS is tied to vision, the MEDIAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS to auditory fxs, and the VENTRAL LATERAL nucleus to motor fxs with cerebellum/basal ganglia connections. As previously reviewed, the VENTRAL POSTERIOR LATEREAL NUCLEUS (VPL) and VENTRAL POSTERIOR MEDIAL NUCLEUS (VPM)relay information on _____.
The anterior relay nuclei of the thalamus are involved with _______ p_________.
The anterior relay nuclei of the thalamus are involved with LIMBIC PATHWAYS.
The thalamus also has nonspecific nuclei with widespread projections. The pulvinar is in the ______ aspect, is large and pillow-shaped, and is tied to ________ orientation. The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) is a major relay to ________ association areas, and is involved with ________ functions.
The thalamus also has nonspecific nuclei with widespread projections. The pulvinar is in the POSTERIOR aspect, is large and pillow-shaped, and is tied to BEHAVIORAL orientation. The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) is a major relay to FRONTAL association areas, and is involved with COGNITIVE functions.
The thalalmus also contains (Y-shaped) ____________ nuclei located within the internal m_________ __________.
The thalalmus also contains (Y-shaped) INTRALAMINARY nuclei located within the internal MEDULLARY LAMINA.
There are two functional regions of intralaminar nuclei: ________ intralaminar nuclei and _________ intralaminar nuclei.
There are two functional regions of intralaminar nuclei: CAUDAL intralaminar nuclei and ROSTRAL intralaminar nuclei.
Again, there are two functional regions of intralaminar nuclei: ________ intralaminar nuclei are are part of the ______ ________; while _________ intralaminar nuclei are both connected the the ______ ________ and receive inputs from the (4 words).
There are two functional regions of intralaminar nuclei: CAUDAL intralaminar nuclei are are part of the BASAL GANGLIA; while ROSTRAL intralaminar nuclei are both connected to the BASAL GANGLIA AND receive inputs from the ASCENDING RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (ARAS).
Inputs from the ARAS travel through the ________ ________ nuclei of the thalamus to the cortex, and are involved in maintaining an ______/__________ state.
Inputs from the ARAS travel through the ROSTRAL nuclei of the thalamus to the cortex, and are involved in maintaining an ALERT/CONSCIOUS state.
In addition to the relay and intralaminar nuclei, the thalamus contains the __________ nucleus.
In addition to the relay and intralaminar nuclei, the thalamus contains the RETICULAR nucleus.
On the lateral aspect of the hypothalamus we find the _________ nucleus. This is the only nucleus that does not project to the _________.
On the lateral aspect of the hypothalamus we find the RETICULAR nucleus. This is the only nucleus that does not project to the CORTEX.
The reticular nucleus regulates the activity of the _________.
The reticular nucleus regulates the activity of the THALAMUS.
The _____ nucleus receives input from other thalamic nuclei and from the _________ and then projects back to the thalamus.
The RETICULAR nucleus receives input from other thalamic nuclei and from the CORTEX and then projects back to the thalamus.
The reticular nucleus is almost purely populated by (excitatory/inhibitory)_______-ergic neurons.
The reticular nucleus is almost purely populated by INHIBITORY GABAergic neurons.
Other inputs to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus come from the brainstem (3 words) and basal forebrain; these may modulate ____/_______.
Other inputs to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus come from the brainstem RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM and basal forebrain; these may modulate ALERTNESS/ATTENTION.
Key clinical concept pertaining to somatosensory pathways: _________ are abnormal positive sensory phenomena.
paresthesias
The character and location of a _______ can help localize: lesions in the [2 words], ie the [2 words] pathways can result in tingling, numbness, and/or a tight bandlike feeling around the trunk/limbs.
The character and location of a PARESTHESIA can help localize: lesions in the POSTERIOR COLUMN, ie the MEDIAL LEMNISCAL pathways can result in tingling, numbness, and/or a tight bandlike feeling around the trunk/limbs.
Lesions in the primary sensory cortex may result in severe contralateral pain, in a syndrome known as...
Lesions in the primary sensory cortex may result in severe contralateral pain, in a syndrome known as DEJERINE-ROUSSY SYNDROME.
If you have cervical lesions, and neck flexion produces electricity-like feelings running down your back, to the extremities, this is known as _______ _________.
LHERMITTE's SIGN
With nerve root lesions, pain may radiate down a limb with a dermatomal distribution, with numbness/tingling; this is provoked by movements that stretch the nerve root. This is known as ______ _________.
RADICULAR PAIN
Other terms relating to somatosensory dysfunction include ___________, which means "unpleasant", and ________ or __________, which mean "painful".
Other terms relating to somatosensory dysfunction include DYSESTHESIA which means "unpleasant", and HYPERPATHIA or ALLODYNIA which mean "painful".
Lesions of the __________ pathways may result in sharp, burning, or searing pain.
Lesions of the ANTEROLATERAL pathways may result in sharp, burning, or searing pain.
Lesions of the ______ lobe or the _______ _______ cortex may result in numbness or tingling, though pain may also be present.
Lesions of the PARIETAL lobe or the PRIMARY SENSORY cortex may result in numbness or tingling, though pain may also be present.
In acute severe lesions of the spinal cord, there is often an initial phase of spinal _____: this involves ______ paralysis below the lesions, loss of _____ reflexes, decreased sympathetic outflow--ie _______ blood pressure, absent sphincter reflexes.
In acute severe lesions of the spinal cord, there is often an initial phase of spinal SHOCK: this involves FLACCID paralysis below the lesions, loss of TENDON reflexes, decreased sympathetic outflow--eg DECREASED blood pressure, absent sphincter reflexes and tone.
A common cause of spinal cord dysfunction is _______, which can be infectious or _______ in nature.
A common cause of spinal cord dysfunction is MYELITIS, which can be infectious or INFLAMMATORY in nature.
Lesions of the primary somatosensory cortex are _____lateral; discriminative _____ and _____ _____ are most severely affected among the possible affected modalities.
Lesions of the primary somatosensory cortex are CONTRAlateral; discriminative TOUCH and JOINT POSITION are most severely affected among the possible affected modalities.
Deficits with lesions in the VPL/VPM/thalamic somatosensory radiations are ______lateral; may be most noticeable in the face/hand/foot; sometimes there is ___ motor deficit.
Deficits with lesions in the VPL/VPM/thalamic somatosensory radiations are CONTRAlateral; may be most noticeable in the face/hand/foot; sometimes there is NO motor deficit.
Deficits with lesions in the lateral pons or lateral medulla are _____lateral for pain/temp loss for body, but _____lateral for the face.
Deficits with lesions in the lateral pons or lateral medulla are CONTRAlateral for pain/temp loss for body, but IPSAlateral for the face.
Lesions in the medial _______ may result in contralateral vibration/joint position loss.
medulla
If a pt. has a bilateral "glove and stocking" distribution of sensory loss, this suggests _________ _________ polyneuropathy, typically associated with this illness:
If a pt. has a bilateral "glove and stocking" distribution of sensory loss, this suggests DISTAL SYMMETRICAL polyneuropathy, typically associated with DIABETES.
Transverse cord lesions result in partial or total interruption of [ ].
Transverse cord lesions result in partial or total interruption of ALL SENSORY/MOTOR PATHS.
Common causes of transverse cord lesions include ______, ____, or _____ _________.
Common causes of transverse cord lesions include TRAUMA, TUMOR or MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
Hemicord lesions are referred to with this name: _____-________ ________.
Hemicord lesions are referred to as BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME.
BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME may be caused by _____, __________ _________, or _________ injuries.
BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME may be caused by TUMOR, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or PENETRATING injuries.
In _______-_______ syndrome, lateral corticospinal tract lesions cause _____lateral _____ motor neuron-type weakness.
In BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME, lateral corticospinal tract lesions cause IPSIlateral UPPER motor neuron-type weakness.
In Brown-Sequard syndrome, hemicord lesions to the posterior columns result in _____lateral loss of _____/_____ ______ sense.
In Brown-Sequard syndrome, hemicord lesions to the posterior columns result in IPSIlateral loss of VIBRATION/JOINT POSITION sense.
________ ________ syndrome may result from small lesions in spinothalamic fibers. These result in ______lateral regions of suspended sensory loss to pain/temp.
CENTRAL CORD syndrome may result from small lesions in spinothalamic fibers. These result in BILATERAL regions of suspended sensory loss to pain/temp.
In central cord syndrome, cervical lesions cause classic ______ distribution.
CAPE
In posterior cord syndrome, posterior column lesions cause loss of ______ and _____ ____ below the lesion level.
In posterior cord syndrome, posterior column lesions cause loss of VIBRATION and POSITION SENSE below the lesion level.
In anterior cord syndrome, there is loss of ____ and ____ sensitivity below the lesion level; anterior horn lesions result in _______ motor neuron weakness at the lesion level.
In anterior cord syndrome, there is loss of PAIN and TEMPERATURE sensitivity below the lesion level; anterior horn lesions result in LOWER motor neuron weakness at the lesion level.
The thalamus is composed of sensory-relay nuclei located in the ____encephalon.
The thalamus is composed of sensory-relay nuclei located in the DIENCEPHALON.
The thalamus serves as the main relay center for sensory impulses for all senses except ________.
OLFACTION
The thalamus relays projections from the _________ and ________ _________ to the cortex.
The thalamus relays projections from the CEREBELLUM and BASAL GANGLIA to the cortex.
Among other sequelae, lesions in the thalamus may result in a______, e_______ dysfunction, _______ pain (a burning sensation treated with AEDs)or impairment in _______.
Among other sequelae, lesions in the thalamus may result in APHASIA,EXECUTIVE dysfunction, THALAMIC pain (a burning sensation treated with AEDs)or impairment in MEMORY.
Thalamic lesions may result in [anterograde or retrograde] memory impairment; medial lesions affect ______ memory while ventral lesions affect ____ memory.
Thalamic lesions may result in BOTH ANTEROGRADE AND RETROGRADE memory impairment; medial lesions affect EXPLICIT memory while ventral lesions affect IMPLICIT memory.