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52 Cards in this Set

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Nitrite
NO2-
Nitrate
NO3-
Sulfite
(SO3)2-
Sulfate
(SO4)2-
Hypochlorite
ClO-
Chlorite
ClO3-
Perchlorate
ClO4-
Carbonate
(CO3)2-
Bicarbonate
(HCO3)-
Phosphate
(PO4)3-
Group 1 salts
Soluble
Li+
soluble
Na+
soluble
K+
soluble
Rb+
soluble
Cs+
soluble
NO3- salts
soluble
(ClO4)- salts
soluble
(C2H3O2)- salts (acetate)
soluble
Ag+
insoluble except for nitrates, perchlorates and acetates
Pb2+/Pb4+
insoluble except for nitrates, perchlorates, and aceates
why is molality used in freezing point and boiling point calculations
molality (moles of solute/kg of soln) does not change with temperature while molarity does
colligative properties depend upon...
number, not kind
What are the colligative properties?
1. boiling point elevation
2. freezing point depression
3. vapor pressure lowering
4. osmotic pressure
molarity
mols of solute/liters of solution
molality
mols of solute/kg of solvent
mass of 1 Liter of water
1 kg, thus molar and molal concentrations of dilute aqueous solutions are nearly the same
van't Hoff factor (i)
how many ions one unit of a substance will produce in a solution
NaCL -> Na+, Cl- i=2
CaCl2 -> Ca+, 2Cl- i=3
when ionic substances dissolve they...
dissociate into ions. Free ions are electolytes
NH4+
soluble
group 1, ammonium, nitrate, perchlorate, and acetate
salts
soluble
Ag+, Pb+, Pb4+, (Hg2)2+, Hg2+
except when with acetate (C2H3O2)-, nitrate (NO3)-, perchlorate (ClO4)-
insoluble
How does solubility of solids in liquids respond to increasting temperature
solubility increases (generally)
Solubility of gases increases with
increasing pressure, and decreasing temperature
vapor pressure
pressure exerted by the gaseous phase of a liquid that evaporated from the exposed surface of the liquid
boiling point
when atmospheric pressure equals vapor pressure
vapor pressure depression
added solute particles act as anchors to solvent molecules thus it makes them harder to enter the gas phase and thus the vapor pressure is lowered.
This means that the temperature will have to be increased to induce boiling
partial pressure (Raoult's Law)
the partial pressure of A is equal to its mol fraction (X) in the solution
NH4+
soluble
group 1, ammonium, nitrate, perchlorate, and acetate
salts
soluble
Ag+, Pb+, Pb4+, (Hg2)2+, Hg2+
except when with acetate (C2H3O2)-, nitrate (NO3)-, perchlorate (ClO4)-
insoluble
How does solubility of solids in liquids respond to increasting temperature
solubility increases (generally)
Solubility of gases increases with
increasing pressure, and decreasing temperature
if intermolecular forces between two liquids (A and B) are weaker than those between A-A or B-B how will the solution deviate from Raoult's Law
if the intermolecular forces are lower then their partial vapor pressures will be higher than predicted by Raoult's law. Opposite is true if A-B > A-A or B-B
Vapor Pressure Depression
Equation
What happens to the boiling point when a non-volatile solute is added to solution
it is elevated

solute anchors solvent particles and makes it harder for them to leave as gas-which lowers vapor pressure and thus more heat is needed for vap pressure to equal atmospheric pressure
boiling pt. elevation equation
eqn
what happens if you add a volatile solute
volatile solutes can increase vapor pressure and thus make the boiliong point go down
What is more accurate for solvent in ideally dilute solution-Henry or Raoult's Law?
raoult's law, solvent vapor partial pressure=mol fraction * vapor pressure as a pure liquid
each solvent surrounded by other solvent= pure liquid
how does size affect gas solubility
heavier, larger gases experience greater van Der Waals forces so they tend to be more soluble
What will the affect be of adding a common ion to a SATURATED solution?
It will shift equilibrium increasing precipitate. It DOES NOT affect Ksp
What will the affect be of adding a common ion to an UNSATURATED solution?
it will not shift the equilibrium because there is no equilibrium to shift