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132 Cards in this Set

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HOMO SAPHIENS
EARLIEST HUMANS TO THINK
HUNTER/GATHERERS
INTERRELATED GROUPS THAT SURVIVED BY FOLLOWING AND FINDING FOOD
CULTURE
THE WAY IN WHICH PEOPLE LIVED, INCLUDING ART, SCIENCE, AND GOVERNMENT
NOMADIC
WANDERING LIFESTYLE FOLLOWING FOOD AND WATER
SIMPLE TOOLS
ITEMS SUCH AS STICKS OR ROCKS USED TO ACCOMPLISH WORK
CLANS
INTERRELATED GROUPS OF PEOPLE
ORAL LANGUAGE
COMMUNICATION THAT DEVELOPED IN THE PALEOLITHIC ERA
ARTIFACTS
MAN-MADE OBJECTS USED BY ARCHEOLOGISTS TO DETERMINE HOW EARLIER PEOPLE LIVED
ARCHEOLOGISTS
PEOPLE WHO USE ARTIFACTS AND FOSSILS TO DETERMINE PAST HUMAN EVENTS
FOSSIL
ANIMAL AND PLANT MATTER WHICH HAS BEEN PRESERVED IN NATURE
CARBON DATING
A METHOD OF TELLING THE APPROXIMATE AGE OF AN ARTIFACT OR FOSSIL
STONE HENGE
GIANT CIRCLES OF STONE IN ENGLAND, PROBABLY USED FOR RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES
MIGRATION
THE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER
SETTLED AGRICULTURE
LIVING IN ONE PLACE AND RAISING FOOD
COMPLEX/ADVANCED TOOLS
TOOLS THAT REQUIRE RESHAPING OR COMBINING PARTS TO COMPLETE WORK
DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
THE TAMING OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
SPECIALIZATION OF LABOR
WORKING AT OR CREATING ONLY ONE ITEM OR GOOD IN ORDER TO MEET ONE'S NEEDS
PICTOGRAPHS
THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING BY MAN
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION
A SHIFT FROM HUNTER/GATHERER SOCIETIES TO SETTLED AGRICULTURE
BRONZE AGE
THE TOOL AGE FOLLOWING THE STONE AGE
MESOPOTAMIA
AN AREA IN BETWEEN AND AROUND THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEYS
SOUTH ASIA
GEOGRAPHIC TERM FOR THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT
EAST ASIA / FAR EAST
GEOGRAPHIC TERM FOR CHINA
NEAR EAST / MIDDLE EAST
GEOGRAPHIC TERM FOR MESOPATAMIA AND PERSIAN EMPIRE AREA
FERTILE CRESCENT
"U" SHAPED AREA STRECTHING FROM THE EAST MEDITERRANEAN COAST THROUGH SYRIA INTO MESOPATAMIA
CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION
TERM DESCRIBING RIVERS AS THE BEGINNING OF CIVILIZATION
EMPIRE
A POLITICAL UNIT COMPOSED OF THE KINGDOM AND ALL OF THE CONQUERED LANDS
HIEROGLYPHICS
PICTOGRAPHS USE IN EGYPT
CUNEIFORM
PICTOGRAPHS/WRITINGS USED IN SUMERIA
CITY-STATE
INDEPENDENT CITIES AND THEIR SURROUNDING LANDS (SMALL KINGDOMS)
POLYTHEISM
BELIEF IN MORE THAN ONE GOD
CODE OF HAMMURABI
EARLY LAW CODE OF BABYLON
BARTER
THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS FOR GOODS
MYTHOLOGY
THE TALES AND LEGENDS OF A CIVILIZATION USUALLY CENTERED ON NATURE AND CREATION
DYNASTY
THE PASSING OF LEADERSHIP FROM FATHER TO SON
GREAT WALL
FORTIFIED BARRIER CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT EAST ASIAN PEOPLE FROM ATTACK
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
APPROVAL NEEDED IN ORDER FOR CHINESE RULERS TO HOLD POWER
SILK ROAD
OVERLAND TRADE ROUTE THAT CONNECTED CHINA TO WESTERN EUROPE
CIVIL SERVICE
PROFESSIONAL GOVERMENT ORGANIZATION, WHICH REQUIRED TESTING IN ORDER TO WORK IN GOVERNMENT
ANCESTOR WORSHIP
BELIEF THAT DECEASED RELATIVES CONTINUED TO GUIDE THE FAMILY
YIN / YANG
REPRESENTATION OF GOOD AND EVIL IN CONFUCIANISM
ARYAN
RACE OF PEOPLE WHO CONTROLLED THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT WITH A CASTE SYSTEM
KHYBER PASS
MIGRATION/INVASION ROUTE INTO THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS TO THE NORTHWEST
ANIMISM
A RELIGION THAT BELIEVES SPIRITS ARE PRESENT IN ANIMALS, PLANTS, AND OTHER NATURAL FORCES, INCLUDING SOULS OF DEAD ANCESTORS
CASTE
A RIGID SYSTEM ON THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT WHICH PLACED PEOPLE IN A PARTICULAR SOCIAL CLASS FROM WHICH THEY COULD NOT MOVE
REINCARNATION
BELIEF THAT A PERSON WILL RETURN IN ANOTHER FORM AFTER THEIR DEATH
KARMA
THE BELIEF THAT ONES ACTIONS IN LIFE DETERMINES ONE'S DESTINY AND FUTURE
VEDAS
RELIGIOUS SCRIPTURES FROM HINDUISM
NOBLE TRUTHS
MAIN IDEAS OF THE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHSIM
PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT
THE COURSE IN BUDDHISM THAT WOULD LEAD TO FREEDOM FROM THE CYCLE OF REBIRTH
TEN COMMANDMENTS
MORAL LAW CODE OF BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY
TORAH
THE HOLY SCRIPTURES OF JUDAISM
MONOTHEISM
BELIEF IN ONE GOD
HEBREWS
JEWISH PEOPLE
EXILE
BANISHED FROM A LAND
DIASPORA
THE SCATTERING OF JEWISH COMMUNITIES
ALPHABET
SYMBOLS USED TO REPRESENT SOUNDS CREATED BY THE PHONECIANS
MONEY ECONOMY
THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS FOR COINS
BUREAUCRACY
AN ORGANIZATION OF PEOPLE WHO COMPLETE THE DAY-TO-DAY TASKS OF GOVERMENT
ZOROASTRIANISM
EARLY PERSIAN RELIGION WITH A BELIEF IN THE FORCES OF GOOD AND EVIL
ILIAD AND ODYSSEY
EPIC POEM BY HOMER ABOUT THE TROGAN WARS
GOLDEN AGE
PERIOD OF TIME WHEN A CIVILIZATION ENJOYS A RAPID ADVANCEMENT IN CULTURE
COLONIZATION
THE SETTLING OF FOREIGN LANDS TO PRODUCE MATERIALS FOR THE HOME COUNTRY
DEMOCRACY
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ALL THE CITIZENS HOLD POWER
OLIGARCHY
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH A FEW PEOPLE HOLD POWER
ASEMBLY
A GROUP OF GREEK CITIZENS WHO MET IN THE AGORA TO GOVERN
AGORA
OUTDOORS CENTER OF GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT GREECE
CITIZEN
A PERSON WHO CAN TAKE PART IN THE GOVERNING OF A SOCIETY
TYRANNY
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ONE PERSON SEIZED POWER AND ESTABLISHED ONE-MAN RULE
CODE OF DRACO
CODIFIED LAW OF ANCIENT GREECE
ARISTOCRACY
FORM OF GOVERNMENT WHERE THE UPPER CLASS NOBILITY RULES
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EACH CITIZEN HAS INPUT INTO DECISION MAKING
PERSIAN WARS
WARS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE PERSIANS AND THE GREEKS
PELOPONNESIAN WARS
WARS FOUGHT BETWEEN SPARTANS AND ATHENIANS
CIVIL WAR
INTERNAL WAR OF A KINGDOM OR EMPIRE
DELIAN LEAGUE
ALLIANCE CREATED UNDER PERICLES TO FREE IONIA AND PROTECT GREEKS FROM PERSIA
PARTHENON
TEMPLE TO ATHENA
GOLDEN AGE OF PERICLES / CLASSICAL AGE
PERIOD WHERE GREECE REACHED IT'S CULTURAL HEIGHT
HELLENISTIC
THE MIXTURE OF GREEK AND PERSIAN CULTURES UNDER ALEXANDER
PATRICIAN
THE UPPER CLASS OF ROMAN SOCIETY
PLEBEIANS
THE LOWER CLASS OF ROMAN SOCIETY, THE MAJORITY OF FREE ROMANS
REPUBLIC / REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
A FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHIC POWER IS GIVEN TO REPRESENTATIVE LEADERS THROUGH ELECTIONS BY THE PEOPLE
SENATE
GOVERNING BODY IN ROME COMPOSED OF THE PATRICIAN CLASS
CONSULS
TWO ELECTED OFFICIALS WHO ADMINISTERED THE GOVERNMENT IN ROME
TWELVE TABLE
THE CODIFIED LAW OF ROME
PUNIC WARS
WARS FOUGHT BETWEEN ROME AND CARTHAGE
GAUL
MODERN DAY ERA OF FRANCE DURING THE ROMAN EMPIRE PERIOD
INFLATION
SITUATION WHERE THE PRICES RISE AND THE VALUE OF MONEY DECREASES
TRIUMVIRATE
A THREE PERSON RULING GROUP
PAX ROMANUS
200-YEAR PERIOD OF ROMAN PEACE
OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS
THE HOLY SCRIPTURES OF CHRISTIANITY
DOCTRINE
THE TEACHINGS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
PANTHEON
TEMPLE TO ALL DEITIES
COLISEUM
ARENA FOR GLADIATOR BATTLES
FORUM
CENTER OF GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT ROME
ROMANCE LANGUAGES
GROUP OF LANGUAGES THAT WERE DERIVED FROM LATIN INCLUDING FRENCH AND ITALIAN
AENEID
EPIC POEM BY VIRGIL ABOUT THE FOUDING OF ROME
ECONOMY
THE MANNER IN WHICH PEOPLE MEET THEIR NEEDS
GRECO-ROMAN
THE MIX OF GREEK AND ROMAN CULTURE
CODE OF JUSTINIAN
CODIFIED LAW OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
ICONS
RELIGIOUS IMAGES USED IN CHRISTIANITY
MOSAIC
FORM OF ARTWORK USING PIECES OF TILE AND GLASS TO CREATE IMAGES
HAGIA SOPHIA
EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH INCORPORATING THE DOME ON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING
EASTERN / GREEK ORTHODOX
THE EASTERN CHURCH OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY
ROMAN CATHOLIC
THE WESTERN CHURCH OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY
CYRILLIC
ALPHABET ADOPTED FROM THE GREEK ALPHABET TO REPRESENT THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES
KORAN / QU'RAN
THE HOLY SCRIPTURES OF ISLAM
FIVE PILLARS
THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF ISLAM
SUNNI
ISLAMIC SECT BELIEVING THE CALIPHATE SHOULD BE HELD BY ANY MUSLIM
SHI'A / SHITTE
ISLAMIC SECT BELIEVING THE CALIPHATE SHOULD BE HELD BY A DESCENDENT OF MUHAMMAD
BATTLE OF TOURS
ENDED THE EXSPANSION OF ISLAM INTO WESTERN EUROPE
DOME OF THE ROCK
HOLY MOSQUE BUILT ON THE SITE WHERE MUHAMMAD ASCENDED TO HEAVEN
MONESTARY
A RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY OF MEN WHO HAVE TAKEN RELIGIOUS VOWS
MISSIONARIES
PEOPLE WHO SPREAD A RELIGIOUS MESSAGE
PARISH
THE LOCAL CONGREGATION OF CATHOLOCISM WITH A PRIEST AT THE HEAD
MANOR
AN ESTATE WITH PEASANT WORKERS GRANTED TO A NOBLE IN EXCHANGE FOR LOYALTY AND MILITARY HELP
VASSAL
A NOBLE WHO HELD LAND FROM AND SERVED A HIGHER-RANKING LORD
FRANKS
MEDIEVAL PEOPLE LIVING IN THE AREA OF PRESENT DAY FRANCE
COMMON LAW
LAW BASE ON JUDICIAL OPINION
MAGNA CARTA
DOCUMENT RESTRICTING THE POWERS OF THE ENGLISH KING AND LISTING INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS FOR ENGLISH PEOPLE
MOORS
MUSLIMS OF SPAIN
CZAR / TSAR
EMPEROR OF RUSSIA
CRUSADES
RELIGIOUS WARS TO CONQUER MIDDLE EASTERN HOLY SITES BY CHRISTIANITY
SECULAR
REFERS TO NON-RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
CASTLE
MEDIEVAL BUILDING DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE MANOR / FIEF FROM INVASION
BUBONIC PLAGUE / BLACK DEATH
EPIDEMIC THAT KILLED UP TO 1/3 OF EUROPEANS DURING THE MIDDLE AGES
OTTOMAN TURKS
ISLAMIC GROUP THAT CONQUERED CONSTANTINOPLE AROUND 1300 A.D.
RENAISSANCE
PERIOD OF RENEWED INTEREST IN CLASSICAL CULTURE DURING THE LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN EUROPE
GUTENBURG BIBLE
THE FIRST FULL SIZED BOOK PRINTED WITH MOVABLE TYPE AND THE PRINTING PRESS
USURY
THE PRATICE OF LENDING MONEY AND CHARGING INTEREST, WHICH WA OPPOSED MY THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH
ARCHIPELAGO
A GROUP OR CHAIN OF ISLANDS
SHINTO
ETHNIC RELIGION OF JAPAN