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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which functionalist theorist studied suicide?
Emile Durkheim
Who is considered the founder of the psychoanalytic perspective in psychology?
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud believed the mind was divided into 3 distinct parts:
id, ego, superego
Freud believed which 2 parts were in conflict at the unconscious level?
id and superego
Who's work is focused on understanding how people think (human cognition)?
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget identified 4 stages of cognition beginning at birth:
1) sensorimotor stage
2) preoperational stage
3) concrete operational stage
4) formal operational stage
What percentage of people never reach the formal operations stage?
30%
Who studied the moral development of children?
Lawrence Kohlberg
Which age did Kohlberg believe moral development began in children?
Age 7
Who sought to examine the moral development of girls?
Carol Gilligan
Carol Gilligan argues that boys have what kind of a perspective?
Justice perspective (boys rely upon formal rules and laws to determine what is right/wrong)
Carol Gilligan argues that girls employ what kind of a perspective?
Care and responsibility perspective (actions are judged on the basis of personal relationships and loyalties)
Who studied the development of the sense of self?
George Herbert Mead
What did George Herbert Mead believe the self represented?
That portion of an individual's personality composed of self-image and self-awareness
George Herbert Mead believed there were 2 components to the self:
I and the ME
I
subjective, spontaneous and unique element of the self
me
objective element of the self, consisting of the internalized attitudes and demands of the larger social environment
What is the first stage in Mead's development of self stages?
Preparatory stage
Occurs up to age 3, children largely imitate world around them
Preparatory stage
2nd stage in Mead's development of self stages
Play stage
Ages 3-5; children learn to use language and other symbols which enables them to pretend they are taking roles of specific people; i.e. mother, teacher
Play stage
3rd stage in Mead's development of self stages
Game stage
begins as child enters school; children begin to develop the capacity to see to take into account the roles of multiple other people
Game stage
Taking the role of the other
we are able to see ourselves as specific other people see us, with this ability the me component of the self develops
He developed the concept of looking glass self
Charles Horton Cooley
Travis Hirschi-symbolic interactionist perspective
Developed control theory as way to help understand what factors constrained people from choosing deviant behavior
Differential Association Theory
We learn deviance from the people we associate with; tendency to be deviant increases as ones association with other deviants increases
Davis-Moore thesis on social stratification
Functionalist perspective--most qualified people must fill most important positions which require extensive training; higher rewards offered to fill positions
Karl Marx-conflict perspective on social stratification
theorized that b/c bourgeoisie owned more resources and had greater power, they would accumulate capital and become increasingly wealthy and proletariat would become immiserated
Max Weber introduced 3 factors that influenced stratification
Class
Status
Party
Which theorist is related to the status inconsistency theory-people in a higher status group and lower in another will be dissatisfied and frustrated
Max Weber
He linked capitalism to the Calvinist Doctrine of Predestination
Max Weber
Max Weber argued that stratification was multidimensional rather than _________ as proposed by Karl Marx
One-dimensional
Calvinist Doctrine of Predestination
The belief that all people are divided before birth by God into 2 groups: the damned and the saved. Only God knows whether a person is going to Heaven or Hell.
Rational-legal authority
Power legitimized by written law or regulations and associated with a socially recognized position
Weber believed that ________-_________ authority would expand and in doing so erode authority based upon custom or tradition.
rational-legal