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26 Cards in this Set

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What do we learn about policy regarding health and income from the Najman study?
The lower the income, the lower the health. Wanted to implement policy to reduce this gap. Mortality rate was higher in those that are poor compared to those that are wealthy
Statistically, who is most likely to get divorced? It would be prudent to review everything that Mehdi or your textbook said about divorce.
Statistically, who is most likely to get divorced? It would be prudent to review everything that Mehdi or your textbook said about divorce.
What is patriarchy?
A group in which men as a group dominate women as a group; authority is vested in males
What do sociologists have to say about differences between men and women? Are we born “men” and “women”, or do we become these? If we become these, how? Through what processes?
Sociologist say that we are born into our certain biological sex, but gender is socially constructed. We are taught these genders from our parents, our teachers, and through the media. This is through the process of socialization. We are not “born” men or women, we “become” these things through socialization. Male and female have to do with our sex, which is a chromosomal and genital matter. Gender, masculinity and femininity, are completely cultural and thus learned, enforced, and reproduced (or challenged) through our actions.

Remember also that gender is a form of stratification. Males, just because they are “men” have access to higher wages, higher levels of esteem, respect, and authority, etc.
Why do we spend so much on health care in the U.S?
Advancements in technology and expensive medicine, medical care is a commodity to be purchased; care of the elderly is more prevalent, costly malpractice insurance.
Read Josh Evan’s “A Brave New World”. What’s he say about class hierarchy?
A technology to alter intelligence might not be available for many years, but that doesn’t mean the risks of creating a rigid class society inherent in this technology should be ignored. Instead, those concerned should lay the groundwork for opposing it now, because the wealthy- precisely those who could use the technology to exacerbate class difference- could monopolize it should it become available. But one thing Evan’s says that we don’t have to worry about is government making genetic engineering mandatory for parents and them trying to set up social classes that way because the American interests groups would never allow this to happen.
What are the statistical relationships between racial-ethnic groups and single parent households? What about single parent birth rates?
Asian Americans: 84% = Both parents, 10% = Mothers, 3% = Fathers or Neither parent
Whites: 76% = Both parents, 16% = Mothers, 5% = Fathers, 3% = Neither parent
Latinos: 66% = Both parents, 25% = Mothers, 4%= Fathers, 5% = Neither parent
Native Americans: 61%= Both parents, 29% = Mothers, 10% = Fathers
African Americans: 35% = Both parents, 51% = Mothers, 5% = Fathers, 9% = Neither Parent
How does gender inequality in education look like in the U.S.?
Until 1832, women were not even allowed to attend college with men. Women were admitted to colleges attended by men- first at Oberlin College in Ohio, they had to wash the male student’s clothing, clean their rooms, and serve them their meals. Female organs were special focus of concern for the men who controlled education. They said that these organs dominated women’s minds, making them less qualified than men for higher education. These ideas were discarded, and women entered college in growing numbers. By 1900 one third of college students were women. 56 percent of today’s college students are women. African Americans have the fewest men relative to women and Asian Americans the most. Women now earn 58 percent of all bachelor’s degrees and 60 percent of all master’s degrees. Women increase their share of professional degree, especially dentistry. Underlying these degrees is gender tracking; that is, college tends to follow gender, which reinforces male- female distinction. Socialization- not some presumed innate characteristic- channels men and women into different educational paths. Graduate school, each passing year the proportion of women drops.
What does Coontz’s article say about the history of families in the U.S. and Europe?
Colonial families were often blended due to high death rates of parents, particularly mothers during child birth; mothers were less concerned with child rearing
• Shifted to patriarchal (in article it says it collapses) society during revolutionary war; children began to marry out of birth order; women worked alongside their husbands and were valued in regards to labor
• Shift labeled “Victorian” (reign of Queen Victoria); love came after marriage (women would write 5 pages in their diary about hanging out with a friend and “carving initials in a tree” and then a sentence about accepting a proposal).
• Early 20th century=advent of the couple; calling was replaced by dating in the 1920s, removing the parental involvement, relationships became stronger
• 1950s=age of marriage was younger, divorce rates were lower
o Typically thought of as the traditional family structure and something that we lost (the “lost golden era,” people say things aren’t like they were in the past) HOWEVER this was NOT traditional but idyllic/uncharacteristic of traditional family roles
o Even then, 30% of children were living in poverty and discrimination was extremely prevalent
What are gender roles?
The behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are male or female; begin BEFORE BIRTH as parents treat their infant (and fetuses) differently depending on the SEX; females are described with adjectives like “soft” and males as “strong,” regardless of any real differences between them.
Functionalist suggests that men perform instrumental roles and women perform expressive roles because that division is functional to the society.
• Conflict theory sees the almost universal inequality between the sexes in societies as an outgrowth of patriarchy the form of social organization in which men dominate or rule over women. Patriarchy assumes that men are superior to women based on sexism or the belief that one sex is inferior and thus deserves inferior treatment.
• There are differences of opinion as to whether observed gender differences in behavior and personality characteristics are, at least in part, due to cultural or social factors, and therefore, the product of socialization experiences, or to what extent gender differences are due to biological and physiological differences
How is poverty distributed in the U.S.? Who is more likely to be poor? What types of families are more likely to be poor? What are some of the reasons given for this?
Individuals or families are poor if their annual pretax cash income falls below a federal measure of poverty
• The government's definition of poverty is not tied to an absolute value of how much an individual or family can afford, but is tied to a relative level based on total income received
• Women bear a disproportionate burden of the world’s poverty. Statistics indicate that women are more likely than men to be poor and at risk of hunger because of the systematic discrimination they face in education, health care, employment and control of assets.
• Poverty implications are widespread for women, leaving many without even basic rights such as access to clean drinking water, sanitation, medical care and decent employment.
• According to some estimates, women represent 70 percent of the world’s poor. They are often paid less than men for their work
• Children of divorce are more likely to be in poverty and to live with their mothers
“Designer” babies. What are they?
Designer babies: Genetic technologies will allow people to design their children. Germline human genetic engineering, which adds and deletes selected genes from sperm, eggs, or embryos, would allow parents to choose the desired genetic traits of their children. Exa: Class divisions based upon genetics would require the technical ability to insert superior qualities into children beyond what the two parents could have produced. Most of these envisioned eugenics changes will not allow the “designer child” to dominate others. Creating a designer baby would simply display parents’ wealth.
How have marriage patterns changed in recent history in the U.S.? What are some reasons for this?
Less people are getting married Reasons for this would be, economic recession, Cohabitation is on the rise, more people want to get an education and successful careers so age has a lot to do with marriage patterns. People are choosing to get married later on. The current average age of first marriage (About 28 years old) is the highest it’s ever been in U.S. History.
What does the textbook say about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment
Group of 399 African American men in Mississippi had syphilis but were not told by U.S Public Health Service. They were studied once a year by doctors as the disease progressed until death. The doctors used them to study what happened if the disease went untreated.
[Sergio Says: what does the textbook say that a “conflict theorist” would say about this?]
What are the reasons people give for cohabitating?
Cohabiting couples have had the chance to work out real- life problems prior to marriage.
People choose to cohabit as a substitute for marriage, a step toward marriage, as a trial run for marriage, or as coresidential dating, where they believe that living together makes dating easier. HOWEVER, people who cohabitate and then marry are more likely to get divorced as typically they are not planning on marriage and don’t consider it a long term thing
[Sergio: also remember that Mehdi mentioned economic reasons as the most common reason as to why people choose to cohabitate.]
Read Ruane & Cerulo’s “You’ve Come a Long Way Baby”. What are they arguing in this piece?
It argues that since a very small age boys and girls are separated based on their gender. Mothers treat their sons differently just as the fathers treat their daughters different. Sons are raised to be more violent while the daughters are raised to take care of household responsibilities. From tv networks to school affect and add to the concepts of gender typing, gender socialization and sex segregation. As kids grow they encounter gender inequality all over and have to grow along with it through school, family, work etc. Gender socialization
What did Foucault say about the body?
Social technologies are way we alter our body. Socialization of nature in terms of reproduction, childbirth, and genetic engineering
There are several questions referring to Killing Us Softly 4. What are her main arguments? How does she make them?
Her main points are that women are just seen as objects of sex in media and that these pictures of these models in ads are so modified by photoshop before they go out that no woman could ever look like the models in these pictures, not even the models themselves (Cindy Crawford - “I wish i looked as good as Cindy Crawford!”). She makes her argument by showing different ads and explaining how they objectify women. She also shows what certain ads would look like if they are done for men or the men where put in these poses.
What does the textbook say about medicine as a profession?
Development of medicine into a specialty in which education becomes rigorous and physicians claim a theoretical understanding of illness. In the 1700s, people did not need formal education or a medical license in order to practice medicine. If you could convince people that you were a good doctor, you could make living. In the 1800s, medical schools began to open up, although they would teach different ideas about illness and medicine. In the 1900s, the US had about 160 medical schools. Abraham Flexner began evaluating schools, advising that philanthropies begin funding schools in order for them to buy better equipment. This began raising standards in the medical field. The professionalization of medicine started when physicians began to undergo rigorous medical education, claim an official understanding of illness and medicine, regulate themselves, claim that they were performing a service for society (not for themselves), and take authority over clients.
As medicine became a profession, it also became a monopoly. The American Medical Association lobbied to get laws passed that limited distributing medical licenses to graduates from schools that only it endorsed. By controlling the education and licensing of physicians, they managed to silence competing philosophies about medicine. Medicine is still the only legal monopoly in the United States
How can we combat patriarchy? Why is it worth combating?
Acknowledge that patriarchy exists
- Pay attention to how we participate in it
- Do something – even if it is SMALL
• Make noise, get support, promote change, recognize other forms of racism, acknowledge that it exists and take a risk
• Systems can only be as stable as the flow of human choice and creativity—it is impossible for everyone to participate in any system in an unvarying and uniform way, patriarchy ways will change whether we see it or not
• Any system organized around control is a losing proposition because it contradicts the essentially uncontrollable nature of reality and does such violence to basic needs of a human
• Patriarchy or any other system will last forever
• More people can set an example
• Openly choose and model alternative paths and don’t hide it
Zborowski has an argument for why experiences of pain differ between groups of people. What is his argument?
The ways that we respond to illness are strongly influenced by cultural factors. Mark Zborowski shows that even the physical sensation of pain is often interpreted differently by members of different American ethnic groups who tend to respond to pain in terms of meanings they learned in their own families.
What are the glass escalator & glass ceiling?
Glass Ceiling: The mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
Glass Escalator: unofficial fast track promotion of certain types of staff, usually men, within an organization. This is typical in female dominated organizations where men seem to have preferment
What is the relationship between violence committed against women and patriarchy?
Some symbolic interactionism, pointing out that to associate strength and virtility with violence- as is done in many cultures- is to promote violence. Others use conflict theory. They argue that men are losing power, and that some men turn violently against women as a way to reassert their declining power and status.
What does Thorne find in her article “Boys and Girls Together…”?
Barrie Thorne, explains the way children and adults through the educational system divide both genders, helping gender segregation become more evident since the very start of a children’s school life. Seating arrangements, the teacher’s verbal addresses to boys and girls and even the interaction between the children in playground or lunch settings are crucial to the way they feel about interacting with one another. With these boundaries they can have long lasting effects on children that might expand to the disengagement or lack of personal interaction of the opposite sex
What is “pinto”? ( it is in your readings and class discussion)
Pinto is a disease that is common among some people and if you do not have the disease you are considered not normal shows how disease is socially constructed. Skin disease in South America, illness culturally based, if you don’t have it then you are seen as being marked abnormal. This makes you undesirable, even sometimes preventing these people to get married.
Love and capitalism: WWSS (what would a sociologist say)
Actually, no, this is not the case at all. Remember: capitalism(s) (from the video); not all instances of capitalism have to be as greedy or competitive, and heterosexual romantic relationships are very rarely as compassionate, caring, and “working together” as we would like to believe (remember patriarchy?). Think in terms of how capitalism and modern notions of romantic love emerged simultaneously and through the same processes (urbanization, industrialization, division of labor, etc). Remember how it used to be: people were married together because of a families economic interests, class position, for status, etc. Marx (in the Manifesto I think) argued that with capitalism “all that is solid melts into air”). This is what he was talking about; all old traditions and ways of doing things are eradicated by capitalism which replaces them with their new, “modern” forms. Love was one of these. Think in terms of how modern notions of romantic love are based (not on compassion & caring, that's ideology, not reality) on a division of labor (& the accompanying notion that we are all individuals that have something special and unique to us), small, isolated, nuclear family (remember that in feudalism people lived in extended familial situations and how that changed when people moved into these new things called cities), a free market (we take OUR love and give it to whoever we choose, as we take OUR labour-time and sell it in the labor market), etc.
Also, see notes in the Q/A section of the doc.