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173 Cards in this Set

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applied sociology
the use of sociology to solve problems-from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
basic (or pure) sociology
sociological research whose purpose is to make discoveries about life in human groups, not to make changes in those groups
class conflict
Marx's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
closed-ended questions
questions followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
conflict theory
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as being composed of groups competing for scarce resources
control group
the group of subjects not exposed to the independent variable
dependent variable
a factor that is changed by an independent variable
documents
in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, and so on.
experiment
the use of control groups and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
experimental group
the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable
functional analysis
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
hypothesis
a statement of the expected relationship between variables according to predictions from a theory
independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
macro-level analysis
an examination of large-scale patterns of society
micro-level analysis
an examination of small-scale patterns of society
nonverbal interaction
communication without words through gestures, space, silence, and so on
open-ended questions
questions that respondents are able to answer in their own words
operational definition
the ways in which variables in a hypothesis are measured.
participant observation (or fieldwork)
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
population
the target group to be studied
positivism
the application of the scientific method to the social world
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
reliability
the extent to which data produce consistent results
replication
repeating a study in order to test its findings
research method (or research design)
one of six procedures sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
science
requires the development of theories that can be tested by research.
secondary analysis
the analysis of data already collected by other researchers
social integration
the degree to which people feel a part of social groups
social interaction
what people do when they are in one another's presence
social location
the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
society
people who share a culture and a territory
sociological perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
sociology
the scientific study of society and human behavior
survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
symbolic interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
theory
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
unobtrusive measures
ways of observing people who do not know they are being studied
validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what was intended
value free
the view that a sociologist's personal values of biases should not influence social research
values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
variables
factors thought to be significant for behavior, which vary from one case to another
Auguste Comte
Comte is often credited with being the founder of sociology, because he was the first to suggest that the scientific method be applied to the study of the social world
W.E.B. Du Bois
Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard University. For most of his career, he taught sociology at Atlanta University. he was concerned about social injustice, wrote about race relations, and was one of the founders of the national association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim was responsible for getting sociology recognized as a separate discipline. He was interested in studying how social forces shape individual behavior.
Laud Humphreys
The sociologist carried out doctoral research on homosexual activity. In order to obtain information, he misrepresented himself to his research subjects. When his methods became widely known, a debate developed over his use of questionable ethics.
Harriet Martineau
An English woman who studied British and United States social life and published Society in America decades before either Durkheim or Weber were born.
Karl Marx
Marx believed that social development grew out of conflict between social classes; under capitalism, this conflict was between the bourgeoisie-those who own the means to produce wealth-and the proletariat-the mass of workers. His work is associated with the conflict perspective
Robert merton
Merton contributed the terms manifest and latent functions and latent dysfunctions to the functionalist perspective
C. Wright Mills
Mills suggested that external influences-or a person's experiences-become part of his or her thinking and motivations and explain social behavior. In the 1950s he urged United States sociologists to get back to social reform. He argued that research without theory is of little value, simply a collection of unrelated facts, and theory that is unconnected to research is abstract and empty, unlikely to represent the way life really is.
Talcott Parsons
Parsons' work dominated sociology in the 1940s-1950s. He developed abstract models of how the parts of society harmoniously work together.
Herbert Spencer
Another early social philosopher, Spencer believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized forms. The first to use the expression "the survival of the fittest" to reflect his belief that social evolution depended on the survival of the most capable and intelligent and the extinction of the less capable. His views became known as social Darwinism.
Max Weber
Among Weber's many contributions to sociology were his study of the relationship between the emergence of the Protestant belief system and the rise of capitalism. he believed that sociologists should not allow their personal values to affect their social research and objectivity should become the hallmark of sociology.
counterculture
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
cultural lag
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially refers tot he process by which U.S culture is being imported and diffused into other nations
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation the the next
culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
ethnocentrism
the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced.
gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
ideal culture
the ideal values and norms of a people;the goals held out for them (as opposed to real culture)
language
a system of symbols that can be be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
material culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.
mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
new technology
an emerging technology that has a significant impact on social life
nonmaterial culture (also called symbolic culture)
a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world)and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
norms
the expectations, or rules of behavior, that develops to reflect and enforce values
pluralistic society
a society made up of many different groups
positive sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms
sanctions
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
symbol
something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
symbolic culture
another term for nonmaterial culture
taboo
a norm thought essential for society's welfare, one so strong that it brings revulsion if violated
technology
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
value cluster
a series of interrelated values that together form a larger whole
value contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
These anthropologists argued that language not only reflects thoughts and perceptions, but that it actually shapes the way a people perceive the world.
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
anticipatory socialization
because one anticipates a future role, one learns parts of it now.
degradation ceremony
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to describe an attempt to remake the self by stripping away an individual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place.
ego
Freud's term for a force that balances the id and the demands of society
gender socialization
the ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
generalized other
the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self.
I
Mead's term for the self as subject, the active, spontaneous, creative part of the self
id
Freud's term for the individual's inborn basic drives
life course
the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
looking-glass self
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our sense of self develops through internalizing other's reactions to us.
mass media
forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, movies, and television that are directed to mass audiences.
resocialization
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
self
the uniquely human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the outside";the picture we gain of how others see us
significant other
an individual who significantly influences someone else's life
social environment
the entire human environment, including direct contact with others.
social inequality
giving privileges and obligations to one group of people while denying them to another
socialization
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group-the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate for them.
superego
Freud's term for the conscience, the internalized norms and values of our social groups
take the role of the other
putting oneself in someone else's shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act.
total institution
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by the officials who run the place.
transitional adulthood
a period of extended youth during which young people gradually ease into adult responsibilities
Patricia and Peter Adler
These sociologists have documented how peer groups socialize children into gender-appropriate behavior
Charles H. Cooley
Cooley studied the development of the self, coining the term the looking-glass self
Sigmund Freud
Freud developed a theory of personality development that took into consideration inborn drives (id), the internalized norms and values of one's society (superego), and the individual's ability to balance the two competing forces (ego)
Erving Goffman
Goffman studied the process of resocialization with total institutions.
George Herbert Mead
Mead emphasized the importance of play in the development of self-esteem in men
Jean Piaget
Piaget studied the development of reasoning skills in children
Achieved status
a position that is earned, accomplished, or involves at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
ascribed status
a position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
back stage
places where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and plan future performances
background assumption
a deeply embedded common understanding, of how the world operates and of how people ought to act
body language
the ways in which people use their bodies, to give messages to others
division of labor
the splitting of a group's or society's tasks into specialties
dramaturgy
an approach, pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramaturgical analysis
ethnomethodology
the study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life
face-saving behavior
techniques used to salvage a performance (interaction) that is going sour
front stage
places where we give peroformances
Gemeinshaft
a type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
Gesellschaft
a type of society dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
group
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group
impression management
people's efforts to control the impressions that other receive of them
macrosociology
analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society, such as social class and the relationships of groups to one another; usually used by functionalist and conflict theorists
master status
a status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies
mechanical solidarity
durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
microsociology
analysis of social life focusing on social interaction; typically used by symbolic interactionists
organic solidarity
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs
role
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
role conflict
conflict that someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role
role performance
the ways in which someone performs a role within the limits that the role provides; showing a particular "style" or "personality"
role strain
conflicts that someone feels within a role
sign-vehicle
a term used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting, appearance, and manner to communicate information about the self
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in property power and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor.
social construction of reality
the use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real.
social institution
the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs.
social integration
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion
social interaction
what people do when they are in one another's presence
socialization
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group-the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them.
social structure
the framework (or typical patterns) that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups to one another; which give direction to and set limits on behavior
status
the position that someone occupies in a social group
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others also called status discrepancy
status set
all the statuses or positions that an individual occupies
status symbols
items used to identify a status
stereotype
assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false
teamwork
the collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly
Thomas theorem
william I. and Dorothy S. thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."
Elijah Anderson
In a series of books, Anderson has studied the lives of inner city residents (Streetwise and Code of the Streets) and suggests that their world is organized around the same norms and beliefs that characterize our wider society.
William Chambliss
chambliss used macro and microsociology to study high school gangs and found that social structure and interaction explained the patterns of behavior in these groups.
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim identified mechanical and organic solidarity as the keys to social cohesion. As societies get larger, they divide up work and this division of labor makes people depend on one another.
Harold Garfinkel
Garfinkel is the founder of ethnomethodology; he conducted experiments in order to uncover people's background assumptions
Erving Goffman
Goffman developed dramaturgy, the perspective within symbolic interactionism that views social life as a drama on the stage.
Ferdinand Tonnies
Tonnies analyzed different types of societies that existed before and after industrialization. He used the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft to describe the two types of societies.
case study
an analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
generalizability
the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) can be generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)
interview
direct questioning of respondents
interviewer bias
effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers
population
the target group to be studied
qualitative research method
research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing and interpreting people's behavior
quantitative research method
research in which the emphasis is placed on precise measurement, the use of statistics and numbers
questionnaires
a list of questions to be asked of respondents
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
rapport
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
self-administered questionnaires
questionnaires that respondents fill out
stratified random sample
a sample from select subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
structured interviews
interviews that use closed-ended questions
unstructured interviews
interviews that use open-ended questions
variable
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or change) from one case to another
Laud Humphreys
received doctorate but fired for questionable ethics
C. Wright Mills
argued that research without theory is of little value, simply a collection of unrelated "facts," and theory that is unconnected to research is abstract and empty, unlikely to represent the way life really is.