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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cause and effect
relationship between two or more variables in which one variable influences or explains the change in the oghr variables
when two or more variables change value together in the same or opposite direction
dependent variable
a variable whose value is believed to depend upon or to be caused by another variable
Carefully designed and controlled attempts, usually conducted in a laboratory,to determine the effect of specific variables on a particular dependent variable or on the behavior or attitudes of the experiment's subjects
field research
the study of social life in its natural setting
a statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables
independent variable
a variable that causes or produces change in the value of another (dependent) variable
negative correlation
a relationship between two variables such that in the majority of cases, when one variable increases in value, the other decreases in value
to specify how the variable is to be measured
participant observation
a research method in which the researcher systematically observes people while actually joining with them in their activities
perfect positive correlation
a relatinship between two variables such that they both change together and in the same direction in all cases
the group of people to whom the results of research are applicable
positive correlation
a relationship between two variables such that they both change together in the same directin in the majority of cases
qualitative research
research that emphasizes the uncovering of subjective meanings and ways people interact in everday life through the use of descriptive, rather than numerical, data
quantitative research
research that emphasizes the statistical analysis of numerical data
random sampling
process by whicheach member of apopulation of intereest has the same chance of being selected for participation in the study
consistency in the measurement of a variable over time; the quality of measurement of the variable that suggest that the same results and data would be collected in repeated observations
representative sample
subgreoup of the populatin that accurately reflects the composition of the populatin as well as the distribution of important characteristics and attributes within the population
subgroup of the population from which the researcher will collect data
secondary analysis of existing data
use of data initiallly collected by other researchers to analyze a topic of interest
extent to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure
methods of sociological research
-experiment-field research-secondary analysis of existing data
deductive model/research
general theory/set of hypothesis-collect data to test theory/hypothesis
inductive model/research
specific observations/theoretical account-explains obs and the meanings